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IQ and Global Inequality is a controversial 2006 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. IQ and Global Inequality is follow-up to their 2002 book IQ and the Wealth of Nations, an expansion of the argument that international differences in current economic development are due in part to differences in average national intelligence as measured by average national IQ, and a response to critics. Unlike IQ and the Wealth of Nations, the book was not published by an academic publisher but by Washington Summit Publishers.
Summary[edit | edit source]
- Chapter 1 summarizes theories of economic growth.
- Chapter 2 defines and describes intelligence.
- Chapter 3 argues that the scientific literature indicates that intelligence is a determinant of incomes and related phenomena among individuals within a number of countries.
- Chapter 4 describes the collection and determination of national IQ, presenting calculated IQs for 113 countries and estimated IQs for an additional 79 countries. This represents all countries with population greater than 40,000.
- Chapter 5 introduces a new statistic, the quality of human condition index (QHC) and 12 alternative variables that measure human conditions.
- Chapter 7 focuses on the relationship between national IQ and QHC, which Lynn and Vanhanen report to be strongly correlated.
- Chapter 8 examines the relationship between national IQ and 12 alternative variables, which Lynn and Vanhanen report are also correlated with national IQ.
- Chapter 9 discusses the genetic and environmental contributions to differences in national intelligence, and argues that racial composition of the population is a major factor.
- Chapter 10 considers the causal relationship between national IQ and important variables related to global inequality.
- Chapter 11 discusses and responds to criticisms made to Lynn and Vanhanen's theory by reviewers. *Chapter 12 summarizes the book and discusses policy recommendations.
National IQ and economic development[edit | edit source]
Quality of human conditions index[edit | edit source]
The quality of human conditions (QHC) index was computed from five variables.
- purchasing power parity Gross National Income (PPP-GNI) per capita 2002
- adult literacy rate 2002
- gross tertiary enrollment ratio
- life expectancy at birth 2002
- the level of democratization 2002 (Tatu Vanhanen's Index of Democratization)
Values of the index range from 10.7 (Burkina Faso) to 89 (Norway). Lynn and Vanhanen write that they would have preferred to include a sixth measure, an indicator of income inequality, but that statistical data for that variable was not available for all countries. They write that the QHC index differs significantly from other widely used indexes (such as the Human Development Index) in that QHC also measures democratization. Some of their claims have been received support in a 2007 study by Rindermann.
|All countries||Estimate IQ
|PPP GNI per capita 2002||0.693||0.342||0.616|
|Adult literacy rate 2002||0.642||0.655||0.655|
|Tertiary enrollment ratio||0.746||0.699||0.745|
|Life expectancy at birth 2002||0.765||0.690||0.750|
|Index of Democratization 2002||0.569||0.322||0.530|
|Excluding smallest countries||Calculated IQ
|PPP GNI per capita 2002||0.739||0.266||0.649|
|Adult literacy rate 2002||0.710||0.746||0.733|
|Tertiary enrollment ratio||0.778||0.734||0.780|
|Life expectancy at birth 2002||0.833||0.753||0.817|
|Index of Democratization 2002||0.598||0.408||0.584|
Other measures of global inequality[edit | edit source]
The relationship of national IQ to twelve other measures of global inequality were examined.
All twelve measures of global inequality are significantly correlated with the QHC index. According to the book, eleven of the twelve measures are significantly correlated with national IQ. The measures of human happiness and life satisfaction are not significantly correlated with national IQ.
Latitude and temperature[edit | edit source]
|Annual mean temperature||-0.885||1|
|PPP GNI per capita 2002||0.528||-0.407|
|Adult literacy rate 2002||0.482||-0.467|
|Tertiary enrollment ratio||0.718||-0.649|
|Life expectancy at birth 2002||0.505||-0.379|
|Index of Democratization 2002||0.512||-0.460|
National IQ and QHC values[edit | edit source]
Lynn and Vanhanen base their analysis on a series of data points that they have gathered and estimated. They obtained IQ data from 113 nations. For another 79 nations, they estimated the mean IQs on the basis of the arithmetic means of the measured IQs of neighboring countries. They justify this method of estimation by pointing out that the correlation between the estimated national IQs they reported in IQ and the Wealth of Nations and the measured national IQs since obtained is very high (0.913). In the chart below, the estimates have been marked with an asterisk (*). The chart also includes the measured and estimated IQs from IQ and the Wealth of Nations.
Lynn and Vanhanen calculated the national IQs in relation to a British mean of 100, with a standard deviation of 15. They corrected all test results for the Flynn effect: adjustments were 2 points per decade for Raven's Progressive Matrices and 3 points per decade for all other types of tests. When two IQ studies were available from one country, their mean was calculated, whereas when three or more were available, the median was calculated.
See also[edit | edit source]
Theories of Race and Intelligence:
- Cattell Culture Fair III
- Evolution of human intelligence
- Flynn effect
- Fluid and crystallized intelligence
- General intelligence factor
- Gini coefficient
- Hominid intelligence
- Intelligence and public policy
- Race and intelligence
Publications of Race and Intelligence:
- IQ and the Wealth of Nations
- IQ and Global Inequality
- The Mismeasure of Man
- Race Differences in Intelligence
Theories of other Intelligence links:
[edit | edit source]
- Lynns posting of a favorable review that characterizes the 006 work as a reply to criticisms of their earlier results
- A site critical of Lynn;s claims
- National IQ means, calibrated on the basis of PISA scores and transformed from educational attainment
References[edit | edit source]
- Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen (2006). IQ and Global Inequality. Washington Summit Publishers: Augusta, GA. ISBN 1593680252
- Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97510-X
- Relevance of education and intelligence at the national level for politics: Democracy, rule of law and political liberty. (PDF) Paper by Heiner Rindermann.
- Intelligence, Human Capital, and Economic Growth: A Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates (BACE) Approach. Paper by Garett Jones and W. Joel Schneider.
- Älykkyyden tabu murtuu? Review by J.P. Roos in Sosiologia 3/2007.
- Review by J.Philippe Rushton in Personality and Individual Differences, 2006, 41, 983-5.
- Rindermann, Heiner: The g-factor of international cognitive ability comparisons: the homogeneity of results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ-tests across nations. European Journal of Personality 21 (2007) 667-706 
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