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===Standing===
 
===Standing===
 
{{Main|Standing}}
 
{{Main|Standing}}
[[File:ModernEgypt, Khedive Tawfiq, DHP13401-1-1 01.jpg|thumb|right|100px|Standing couple, January 1873]]Although quiet standing appears to be static, modern instrumentation shows it to be a process of rocking from the [[ankle]] in the [[Anatomical terms of location#Planes|sagittal]] plane. The sway of quiet standing is often likened to the motion of an inverted pendulum.<ref>[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15013500&dopt=Abstract Abstract] Kinematic and kinetic validity of the inverted pendulum model in quiet standing, [[National Institutes of Health|NIH]]</ref> There are many mechanisms in the body that are suggested to control this movement, e.g. a spring action in muscles, higher control from the nervous system or core muscles.
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[[File:ModernEgypt, Khedive Tawfiq, DHP13401-1-1 01.jpg|thumb|right|100px|Standing couple, January 1873|link=Special:FilePath/ModernEgypt,_Khedive_Tawfiq,_DHP13401-1-1_01.jpg]]Although quiet standing appears to be static, modern instrumentation shows it to be a process of rocking from the [[ankle]] in the [[Anatomical terms of location#Planes|sagittal]] plane. The sway of quiet standing is often likened to the motion of an inverted pendulum.<ref>[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15013500&dopt=Abstract Abstract] Kinematic and kinetic validity of the inverted pendulum model in quiet standing, [[National Institutes of Health|NIH]]</ref> There are many mechanisms in the body that are suggested to control this movement, e.g. a spring action in muscles, higher control from the nervous system or core muscles.
   
 
Although standing per se isn't dangerous, there are pathologies associated with it. One short term condition is orthostatic hypotension, and long term conditions are sore feet, stiff legs and low back pain.
 
Although standing per se isn't dangerous, there are pathologies associated with it. One short term condition is orthostatic hypotension, and long term conditions are sore feet, stiff legs and low back pain.
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===Sitting===
 
===Sitting===
 
{{main|Sitting}}
 
{{main|Sitting}}
[[Image:Paul Cézanne 161.jpg|thumb|left|100px|[[Paul Cézanne]]. A sitting position]][[Sitting]] requires the buttocks resting on a more or less horizontal structure, like a [[chair]] or the ground. Special ways of sitting are with the legs horizontal, and in an inclined seat. While on a chair the shins are usually vertical, on the ground the shins may be crossed in the [[lotus position]] or be placed horizontally under the thigh in a [[seiza]].
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[[Image:Paul Cézanne 161.jpg|thumb|left|100px|[[Paul Cézanne]]. A sitting position|link=Special:FilePath/Paul_Cézanne_161.jpg]][[Sitting]] requires the buttocks resting on a more or less horizontal structure, like a [[chair]] or the ground. Special ways of sitting are with the legs horizontal, and in an inclined seat. While on a chair the shins are usually vertical, on the ground the shins may be crossed in the [[lotus position]] or be placed horizontally under the thigh in a [[seiza]].
   
 
===Squatting===
 
===Squatting===
 
{{Main|Squatting position}}
 
{{Main|Squatting position}}
[[File:Michael Votter.jpg|thumb|120px|Squatting on the ground as a resting position.]]Squatting is a posture where the weight of the body is on the feet (as with standing) but the knees are bent either fully (full or deep squat) or partially (partial, half, semi, parallel or monkey squat). It may be used as a posture for resting or working at ground level when the ground is too dirty to sit or kneel; for [[defecation]] (the normal such posture in the many parts of the world that use [[squat toilet]]s); or as a temporary position during lower body [[Squat (exercise)|squat exercises]].
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[[File:Michael Votter.jpg|thumb|120px|Squatting on the ground as a resting position.|link=Special:FilePath/Michael_Votter.jpg]]Squatting is a posture where the weight of the body is on the feet (as with standing) but the knees are bent either fully (full or deep squat) or partially (partial, half, semi, parallel or monkey squat). It may be used as a posture for resting or working at ground level when the ground is too dirty to sit or kneel; for [[defecation]] (the normal such posture in the many parts of the world that use [[squat toilet]]s); or as a temporary position during lower body [[Squat (exercise)|squat exercises]].
   
 
===Lying===
 
===Lying===
 
{{Main|Lying (position)}}
 
{{Main|Lying (position)}}
[[Image:Watteau Jupiter und Antiope Detail.jpg|left|thumb|120px|"Jupiter et Antiope", by [[Antoine Watteau]]]]When in lying position, the body may assume a great variety of shapes and positions. The following are the basic recognized positions.
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[[Image:Watteau Jupiter und Antiope Detail.jpg|left|thumb|120px|"Jupiter et Antiope", by [[Antoine Watteau]]|link=Special:FilePath/Watteau_Jupiter_und_Antiope_Detail.jpg]]When in lying position, the body may assume a great variety of shapes and positions. The following are the basic recognized positions.
 
*'''[[Supine position]]:''' lying on the back with the face up.
 
*'''[[Supine position]]:''' lying on the back with the face up.
 
*'''[[Prone position]]:''' lying (or laying) on the chest with the face down ("lying down", "laying down", or "going prone").
 
*'''[[Prone position]]:''' lying (or laying) on the chest with the face down ("lying down", "laying down", or "going prone").
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===Kneeling===
 
===Kneeling===
 
{{main|Kneeling}}
 
{{main|Kneeling}}
[[Image:Cheselden t36 prayer.jpg|thumb|right|120px|A [[kneeling]] [[skeleton]]]][[Kneeling]] is standing not on the feet, but on one or both knees or shins approximately parallel to the ground, possibly raised to an angle depending on the position of the feet. The torso is usually upright but can be considered kneeling at other angles not touching the ground.
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[[Image:Cheselden t36 prayer.jpg|thumb|right|120px|A [[kneeling]] [[skeleton]]|link=Special:FilePath/Cheselden_t36_prayer.jpg]][[Kneeling]] is standing not on the feet, but on one or both knees or shins approximately parallel to the ground, possibly raised to an angle depending on the position of the feet. The torso is usually upright but can be considered kneeling at other angles not touching the ground.
   
 
===Crouching===
 
===Crouching===
[[File:Crouching Aphrodite Louvre Ma5.jpg|thumb|left|100px|Crouching Aphrodite, [[Louvre]]]]To crouch means "to bend down; to stoop low; to lie close to the ground with legs bent, as an animal when waiting for prey or in fear."<ref>http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/crouch</ref>
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[[File:Crouching Aphrodite Louvre Ma5.jpg|thumb|left|100px|Crouching Aphrodite, [[Louvre]]|link=Special:FilePath/Crouching_Aphrodite_Louvre_Ma5.jpg]]To crouch means "to bend down; to stoop low; to lie close to the ground with legs bent, as an animal when waiting for prey or in fear."<ref>http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/crouch</ref>
 
Crouching may involve squatting or kneeling.
 
Crouching may involve squatting or kneeling.
   
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==Atypical positions==
 
==Atypical positions==
[[File:Statue von David Černý.jpg|thumb|right|120px|Hanging man by [[David Černý]]]]Atypical positions include:
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[[File:Statue von David Černý.jpg|thumb|right|120px|Hanging man by [[David Černý]]|link=Special:FilePath/Statue_von_David_Černý.jpg]]Atypical positions include:
 
* standing on one leg
 
* standing on one leg
 
* [[handstand]]
 
* [[handstand]]
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==Stress positions==
 
==Stress positions==
 
{{main|Stress positions}}
 
{{main|Stress positions}}
[[Image:Vietconginterrogation1967.jpg|thumb|A Viet Cong prisoner captured in 1967 by the U.S Army awaits interrogation. He has been placed in a stress position by tying a board between his arms.]]
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[[Image:Vietconginterrogation1967.jpg|thumb|A Viet Cong prisoner captured in 1967 by the U.S Army awaits interrogation. He has been placed in a stress position by tying a board between his arms.|link=Special:FilePath/Vietconginterrogation1967.jpg]]
 
Stress positions place the human body in such a way that a great amount of weight is placed on just one or two muscles. Forcing [[prisoner]]s to adopt such positions is a method of ill-treatment used for extracting information or as a punishment, possibly amounting to [[torture]]. Such positions also are sometimes used as a [[Child discipline|punishment for children]].
 
Stress positions place the human body in such a way that a great amount of weight is placed on just one or two muscles. Forcing [[prisoner]]s to adopt such positions is a method of ill-treatment used for extracting information or as a punishment, possibly amounting to [[torture]]. Such positions also are sometimes used as a [[Child discipline|punishment for children]].
   
 
==Bondage positions==
 
==Bondage positions==
 
{{Main|List of bondage positions}}
 
{{Main|List of bondage positions}}
A [[bondage (BDSM)|bondage]] position is a body position created by [[physical restraint]]s which restricts [[:wikt:locomotion|locomotion]], use of the limbs or general freedom of movement.
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A [[bondage (BDSM)|bondage]] position is a body position created by [[physical restraint]]s which restricts [[:wikt:locomotion|locomotion]], use of the limbs or general freedom of movem.
   
 
==Childbirth positions==
 
==Childbirth positions==

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