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The UN Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, childbirth, and other factors for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare. The index was developed in 1990 by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, and has been used since 1993 by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report.
The HDI measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development:
- A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth.
- Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weight) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weight).
- A decent standard of living, as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) in USD.
Each year, UN member states are listed and ranked according to these measures. Those high on the list often advertise it, as a means of attracting talented immigrants (economically, individual capital) or discouraging emigration.
An alternative measure, focusing on the amount of poverty in a country, is the Human Poverty Index.
- 1 Method used to calculate the Human Development Index
- 2 2005 report
- 3 Past top countries
- 4 Countries not included
- 5 See also
- 6 External links
Method used to calculate the Human Development Index[edit | edit source]
- -index =
where and are the lowest and highest values the variable can attain, respectively.
The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the average of the following three general indices:
- Life Expectancy Index =
- Education Index =
- Adult Literacy Index (ALI) =
- Gross Enrollment Index (GEI) =
- GDP Index =
LE: Life expectancy
ALR: Adult literacy rate
CGER: Combined gross enrollment ratio
GDPpc: GNP per capita at PPP in USD
Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
2005 report[edit | edit source]
The report for 2005 shows that, in general, the HDI for countries around the world is improving, with two major exceptions: Post-Soviet states, and Sub-Saharan Africa, both of which show steady decline. Worsening education, economies, and mortality rates have contributed to HDI declines amongst countries in the first group, while HIV/AIDS and concomitant mortality is the principal cause of decline in the second group.
Most of the data used for the 2005 report, indicating country HDIs for 2003, are derived largely from 2003 or earlier. Not all UN member states choose to or are able to provide the necessary statistics. Notable absences from the list (excluding micro-states) are Afghanistan, Iraq, Liberia, North Korea, Serbia and Montenegro, and Somalia. While these countries are either unwilling or unable to provide data, they are generally considered countries of medium to low human development.
An HDI below 0.5 is considered to represent low development and 30 of the 32 countries in that category are located in Africa, with the exceptions of Haiti and Yemen. The bottom ten countries are all in Africa. The highest-scoring Sub-Saharan country, South Africa, is ranked 120th (with an HDI of 0.658), which is well above most other countries in the region.
An HDI 0.8 or more is considered to represent high development. This includes countries of northern and western Europe, Australia, Israel, Canada, the United States, and Japan. Other countries that exhibit high human development amidst countries with lower HDIs include (with their position) South Korea (28th), Costa Rica (47th), Cuba (52nd), and Panama (56th).
Top thirty countries (HDI range from 0.963 down to 0.878)[edit | edit source]
Bottom ten countries (HDI range from 0.281 up to 0.379)[edit | edit source]
- Template:Country data Mozambique (↑ 3)
- Template:Country data Burundi (↑ 4)
- Template:Country data Ethiopia (=)
- Template:Country data Central African Republic (↓ 2)
- REDIRECT Template:GNB
- REDIRECT Template:TCD
- Template:Country data Mali (=)
- Template:Country data Burkina Faso (=)
- Template:Country data Sierra Leone (↑ 1)
- REDIRECT Template:NER
[edit | edit source]
Asia[edit | edit source]
22. [[Image:Template:Country flag alias Hong Kong|22x20px|Flag of Template:Country alias Hong Kong]] [[Template:Country alias Hong Kong|Template:Country shortname alias Hong Kong]] (↑ 1)
1. [[Image:Template:Country flag alias Norway|22x20px|Flag of Template:Country alias Norway]] [[Template:Country alias Norway|Template:Country shortname alias Norway]] (=)
115. Template:MOL (↓ 2)
Past top countries[edit | edit source]
The number one ranked country in each year of the index.
Countries not included[edit | edit source]
The following countries or territories are not ranked in the 2005 Human Development Index, for being unable or unwilling to provide the necessary data.
* The Republic of China (Taiwan) has calculated its HDI to be 0.910 for 2003 based on the following data: life expectancy of 76.1 years, adult literacy rate of 97.0%, combined gross enrolment rate of 97%, and GDP per capita (PPP) of US$23,911. If included among UN HDI figures, Taiwan would rank 25th: behind Greece and in front of Singapore. 
See also[edit | edit source]
- Freedom House
- List of countries by Human Development Index
- United Nations
- Gini coefficient
- List of countries by income equality
- Physical quality-of-life index
- List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
[edit | edit source]
- World Rank - Human developement index
- Human Development Report Office
- 2005 UN Human Development Index Report (PDF)
- List of countries by HDI at NationMaster.com
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