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Types of Hormone Receptors
- Peptide hormone receptors are often transmembrane proteins. They are also called G-protein-coupled receptors, sensory receptors or ionotropic receptors. These receptors generally function via intracellular second messengers, including cyclic AMP (cAMP), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and the calcium (Ca2+)-calmodulin system.
- Steroid hormone and related receptors are generally soluble proteins that function through gene activation. Their response elements are DNA sequences (promoters) that are bound by the complex of the steroid bound to its receptor. The receptors themselves are zinc-finger proteins. These receptors include those for glucocorticoids, estrogens, androgens, thyroid hormone (T3), calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D, and the retinoids (vitamin A).
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