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Industrial & Organisational : Introduction : Personnel : Organizational psychology : Occupations: Work environment: Index : Outline

Holland Codes are career types created by psychologist John L. Holland.

Holland mapped these types into a hexagon which he then broke down into the RIASEC job environments :

Holland hexigon
  • Realistic - practical, physical, hands-on, tool-oriented
  • Investigative - analytical, intellectual, scientific
  • Artistic - creative, original, independent, chaotic
  • Social - cooperative, supporting, helping, healing/nurturing
  • Enterprising - competitive environments, leadership, persuading
  • Conventional - detail-oriented, organizing, clerical

Holland argues that 2-3 types dominate in each person.


Working with your hands and things, practical, mechanically inclined, physical, tool-oriented:


Working with theory and information, analytical, intellectual, scientific:


Non-conforming, original, independent, chaotic, creative:


Cooperative environments, supporting, helping, healing/nurturing:


Competitive environments, leading, persuading, selling, dominating, promoting, status:


Precise, perfect attention to detail, orderly, organizing, status:

See alsoEdit

References Edit

  • Holland, John. L. (1997). Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments, Psychological Assessment Resources Inc.
  • Holland, John. L. (1996). Dictionary of Holland Occupational Codes, Psychological Assessment Resources Inc.

External linksEdit


College and university career centers:

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