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A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure."[1]

Etymology[edit | edit source]

The term 'ghetto' was originally used to refer to the Venetian Ghetto in Venice, Italy where Jews were forced to live. The word "ghetto" actually means "foundry" in Italian, used in this sense in a reference to a foundry located on the same island as the area of Jewish confinement.[2] An alternative etymology is from Italian borghetto, diminutive of borgo ‘borough’. [3]

History[edit | edit source]

The corresponding German term was Judengasse (lit. Jew's Lane) known as the Jewish Quarter. The term came into widespread use in Ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944 where the Jews were required to live prior to their transportation to concentration and death camps.

The term "ghetto" still has a similar meaning, but referring to broader range of social situations, such as any poverty-stricken urban area.

A ghetto is formed in three ways:[4]

  • As ports of entry for racial minorities, and immigrant racial minorities.
  • When the majority uses compulsion (typically violence, hostility, or legal barriers) to force minorities into particular areas.
  • When economic conditions make it difficult for minority members to live in non-minority areas.

Jewish Ghettos[edit | edit source]

Main article: Jewish Quarter (diaspora)

In the Jewish diaspora, a Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. Jewish quarters, like the Jewish ghettos in Europe, were often the outgrowths of segregated ghettos instituted by the surrounding Christian authorities or in World War Two, the Nazis. A Yiddish term for a Jewish quarter or neighborhood is "Di yiddishe gas" (Template:Lang-yi ), or "The Jewish street". Many European and Middle Eastern cities once had a historical Jewish quarter and some still have it.

Jewish ghettos in Europe existed because Jews were viewed as alien due to being a cultural minority and due to their non-Christian beliefs in a Renaissance Christian environment. As a result, Jews were placed under strict regulations throughout many European cities.[5] The character of ghettos has varied through times. In some cases, the ghetto was a Jewish quarter with a relatively affluent population (for instance the Jewish ghetto in Venice). In other cases, ghettos were places of terrible poverty and during periods of population growth, ghettos had narrow streets and tall, crowded houses. Residents had their own justice system. Around the ghetto stood walls that, during pogroms, were closed from inside to protect the community, but from the outside during Christmas, Pesach, and Easter Week to prevent the Jews from leaving during those times.

A mellah (Arabic ملاح, probably from the word ملح, Arabic for "salt") is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. Jewish populations were confined to mellahs in Morocco beginning from the 15th century and especially since the early 19th century. In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a fortified gateway. Usually, the Jewish quarter was situated near the royal palace or the residence of the governor, in order to protect its inhabitants from recurring riots. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages inhabited solely by the Jews.

During World War II, ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944 were established by the Nazis to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies into tightly packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe, turning them into de-facto concentration camps and death camps in the Holocaust. Though the common usage is ghetto, the Nazis most often referred to these areas in documents and signage at their entrances as Judischer Wohnberzirk or Wohngebiet der Juden (German); both translate as Jewish Quarter. These Nazi ghettos used to concentrate Jews before extermination sometimes coincided with traditional Jewish ghettos and Jewish quarters, but not always. Expediency was the key factor for the Nazis in the Final Solution. Nazi ghettos as stepping stones on the road to the extermination of European Jewry existed for varying amounts of time, usually the function of the number of Jews who remained to be killed but also because of the employment of Jews as slave labor by the Wehrmacht and other German institutions, until Heinrich Himmler's decree issued on June 21, 1943, ordering the dissolution of all ghettos in the East and their transformation into concentration camps.[6]

United States[edit | edit source]

History[edit | edit source]

The Irish immigrants of the 19th century were the first ethnic group to form ethnic enclaves in America’s cities, followed by Italians and Poles in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Irish and Eastern European immigrants in the early twentieth century actually were more segregated than blacks of that area.[7] Most Europeans lived like bannahs immigrants, the second or third generation families were able to relocate to better housing in the suburbs after World War II if possible.

Other ethnic ghettos were the Lower East Side in Manhattan, New York, which, until the 1990s [How to reference and link to summary or text], was predominantly Jewish, and Spanish Harlem, which was home to a large Puerto Rican community dated back to the 1930s. Little Italys across the country were predominantly Italian ghettos. Brighton Beach is the home of mostly Russian and Ukrainian immigrants.

In the United States, between the abolition of slavery and the passing of the civil rights laws of the 1960s, discriminatory mores (sometimes codified in law, or through redlining) often forced urban African Americans to live in specific neighborhoods, which became known as "ghettos."[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Black ghettos[edit | edit source]

Black-White segregation in the US does not exist in most places due to several factors. Despite these pervasive patterns, many changes for individual areas remain insignificant.[8]. Thirty years after the African-American civil rights era (1955-1968), the United States remains a residentially segregated society in which blacks and whites inhabit different neighborhoods of vastly different quality.[9][10] Cities throughout history have contained distinct ethnic districts but they have rarely been as isolated and impoverished as some of the African American neighborhoods found in U.S. cities.[7] The racial segregation found in ghettos can lead to social, economic and political tensions.[11]

Due to segregated conditions and widespread poverty some black neighborhoods in the United States have been called "ghettos". Most of these neighborhoods are in Northeastern cities where African Americans moved during The Great Migration (1914-1950) a period when over a million[12] African Americans moved out of the rural Southern United States to escape the widespread racism of the South, to seek out employment opportunities in urban environments, and to pursue what was widely perceived to be a better life in the North.[12] African-American neighborhoods started out well, economically. In the Midwest, neighborhoods were built on high wages from manufacturing jobs. The African-American neighborhoods of the mid-twentieth century appear to have been much less harmful than those of today.[7] However, segregation increased most in those cities with the greatest black in-migration.[11]

In the years after World War II, many white Americans began to move away from inner cities to newer suburban communities, a process known as white flight. White flight occurred, in part, as a response to black people moving into white urban neighborhoods, and remains a significant cause in the spread of urban decay.[13][11] Discriminatory practices, especially those intended to "preserve" emerging white suburbs, restricted the ability of blacks to move from inner-cities to suburbs, even when they were economically able to afford it. In contrast to this, the same period in history marked a massive suburban expansion available primarily to whites of both wealthy and working class backgrounds, facilitated through highway construction and the availability of federally subsidized home mortgages (VA, FHA, HOLC). These made it easier for families to buy new homes in the suburbs, but not to rent apartments in cities.[14]

In response to the influx of black people from the South, banks, insurance companies, and businesses began denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[15] access to health care,[16] or even supermarkets[17] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[18] areas. The most devastating form of redlining, and the most common use of the term, refers to mortgage discrimination. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration suggest that in the mid-twentieth century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by non-blacks to exclude blacks from outside neighborhoods[19]

The "Racial" Provisions of FHA Underwriting Manual of 1938, included the following guidelines which exacerbated the segregation issue:

Recommended restrictions should include provision for: prohibition of the occupancy of properties except by the race for which they are intended …Schools should be appropriate to the needs of the new community and they should not be attended in large numbers by inharmonious racial groups. [11][20]

This meant that ethnic minorities could secure mortgage loans only in certain areas, and it resulted in a large increase in the residential racial segregation and urban decay in the United States.[21] The creation of new highways in some cases divided and isolated black neighborhoods from goods and services, many times within industrial corridors. For example, Birmingham’s interstate highway system attempted to maintain the racial boundaries that had been established by the city’s 1926 racial zoning law. The construction of interstate highways through black neighborhoods in the city led to significant population loss in those neighborhoods and is associated with an increase in neighborhood racial segregation.[22] By 1990, the legal barriers enforcing segregation had been replaced by decentralized racism, where whites pay more than blacks to live in predominantly white areas.[7] Some social scientists suggest that the historical processes of suburbanization and decentralization are instances of white privilege that have contributed to contemporary patterns of environmental racism.[23]

Despite mainstream America’s use of the term "ghetto" to signify a poor, culturally or racially-homogenous urban area, those living in the area often used it to signify something positive. The black ghettos did not always contain dilapidated houses and deteriorating projects, nor were all of its residents poverty-stricken. For many African Americans, the ghetto was "home" a place representing authentic blackness and a feeling, passion, or emotion derived from the rising above the struggle and suffering of being black in America.[24] Langston Hughes relays in the "Negro Ghetto" (1931) and "The Heart of Harlem" (1945): "The buildings in Harlem are brick and stone/And the streets are long and wide,/But Harlem’s much more than these alone,/Harlem is what’s inside." Playwright August Wilson used the term "ghetto" in Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (1984) and Fences (1987), both of which draw upon the author’s experience growing up in the Hill district of Pittsburgh, a black ghetto. [7]

Other ghettos[edit | edit source]

Chinatowns, where most Chinese immigrants settled from the 1850s onward in Chicago, New York City, Boston, Oakland, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Trenton, Camden, New Jersey,New Orleans, Vancouver, Canada and other major cities originated as racially segregated enclaves. However, most Chinese Americans no longer reside in those urban sections, but Asian immigration from China, Southeast Asia and the Philippines since the 1970s repopulated many Chinatowns, even though Little Italys, Chinatowns (or Koreatowns and Little Tokyos) and other ethnic neighbourhoods have become more middle-class in recent times, dominated by successful restaurant owners, family-owned stores and businessmen able to start up their own companies. Many have become tourist attractions in their own right.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

In the Southwest U.S., Mexican Americans had historical low-income urban areas known as barrios located in cities with large Hispanic populations such as New York City, Long Beach, San Diego, Dallas, Texas, Oceanside, National City, Houston, Denver, El Paso, San Jose, Santa Ana, San Bernardino, Phoenix, Oklahoma City, San Antonio and Oakland, California. Many of these cities struggled with issues of crime, drugs, youth gangs and family breakdown. However, middle-class and college-educated Hispanics moved out of barrios for other neighbourhoods or the suburbs. The barrios continually thrived by the large influx of immigration from Mexico, this largely due to the explosion of the Hispanic/Latino population in the late 20th century. The majority of residents in these urban barrios are immigrants directly from Mexico and Latin America.[How to reference and link to summary or text] Israel also made its own ghetto "Gaza Ghetto" in gaza area to block access to Palesteins from outside world with the world famous "concrete blocks".

Trencianske Jastrabie-Slovakia[edit | edit source]

This ghetto is located in the west of Slovakia.This rural community is mainly of white population and descent. Jastrabie, in the English language means the village or valley of hawks. The village was named in the late 1700s, for the hawks inhabiting the Inovec Mountains. Jastrabie has a very high criminal rate, centred around the train station; methamphetamine labs are common, although marijuana is widely grown. A lot of the violence and drug use is concentrated around the train station.

The neighbouring village of Dvorec is known for drug smuggling and prostitution. Mitice, a chain of three villages across the crossroads of Jastrabie, is known for supplying the city and suburbs with weapons and other illegal products.

The area is known for the notorious gang M.O.N., which is believed to be the abbreviation for "Middle Of Nowhere"; the gang is believed to be named for its location. There are many communistic buildings but that's still a sad reality in this eastern European country. Even though Slovakia or the Slovak Republic is in the European Union, no funds were provided for infrastructure.

United Kingdom[edit | edit source]

The existence of ethnic enclaves in the United Kingdom is controversial. Southall Broadway in London, where less than 12 percent of the population is white, has been cited as an example of a 'ghetto', but in reality the area is home to a number of different ethnic groups and religions.[25][26] Analysis of data from Census 2001 revealed that only two wards in England and Wales - in Birmingham - had one dominant non-white ethnic group comprising more than two-thirds of the local population, but there were 20 wards where whites were a minority making up less than a third of the local population.[27][28] By 2001, two London boroughs - Newham and Brent - had 'minority majority' populations, and most parts of the city tend to have a diverse population.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. ghetto - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  3. The New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Edition, [[Erin McKean, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-517077-6
  4. Ghettos: The Changing Consequences of Ethnic Isolation
  5. GHETTO Kim Pearson
  6. Ghetto in Flames Yitzhak Arad, pp. 436-437
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Ghettos: The Changing Consequences of Ethnic Isolation Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Glaeser" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Glaeser" defined multiple times with different content
  8. Inequality and Segregation R Sethi, R Somanathan - Journal of Political Economy, 2004
  9. SEGREGATION AND STRATIFICATION: A Biosocial Perspective Douglas S. Massey Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race (2004), 1: 7-25 Cambridge University Press
  10. Inequality and Segregation Rajiv Sethi and Rohini Somanathan Journal of Political Economy, volume 112 (2004), pages 1296–1321
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 The Suburban Racial Dilemma: Housing and Neighborhoods] By William Dennis Keating. Temple University Press. 1994. ISBN 1566391474 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Keating" defined multiple times with different content
  12. 12.0 12.1 The Great Migration
  13. Central City White Flight: Racial and Nonracial Causes William H. Frey American Sociological Review, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Jun., 1979), pp. 425-448
  14. [ "Racial" Provisions of FHA Underwriting Manual,
  15. Racial Discrimination and Redlining in Cities
  16. See: Race and health
  17. In poor health: Supermarket redlining and urban nutrition, Elizabeth Eisenhauer, GeoJournal Volume 53, Number 2 / February, 2001
  18. How East New York Became a Ghetto by Walter Thabit. ISBN 0814782671. Page 42.
  19. The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto David M. Cutler, Edward L. Glaeser, Jacob L. Vigdor The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 107, No. 3 (Jun., 1999), pp. 455-506
  20. Federal Housing Administration, Underwriting Manual: Underwriting and Valuation Procedure Under Title II of the National Housing Act With Revisions to February, 1938 (Washington, D.C.), Part II, Section 9, Rating of Location.
  21. Crabgrass im cool=D Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States by Professor Kenneth T. Jackson ISBN 0195049837
  22. From Racial Zoning to Community Empowerment: The Interstate Highway System and the African American Community in Birmingham, Alabama Charles E. Connerly Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, 99-114 (2002)
  23. Rethinking Environmental Racism: White Privilege and Urban Development in Southern California Laura Pulido Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 90, No. 1 (Mar., 2000), pp. 12-40
  24. Smitherman, Geneva. Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
  25. We can't run away from it: white flight is here too | Anthony Browne - Times Online
  26. Kerr, J., Gibson, A. and Seaborne, M. (2003) London from punk to Blair. Reaktion Books.

Further reading[edit | edit source]

Books[edit | edit source]

  • Bauman, G., & Grunes, R. (1974). Psychiatric rehabilitation in the ghetto: An educational approach. Oxford, England: D C Heath.
  • Berkowitz, L. (1972). The study of urban violence: Some implications of laboratory studies of frustration and aggression. In Guterman, Stanley S (1972) Black psyche: The modal personality patterns of black Americans xx, 330 pp Oxford, England: Glendessary.
  • Cross, W. E., Jr. (2006). Globalism, America's Ghettos, and Black Youth Development. In International perspectives on youth conflict and development (pp. 269-288). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Hannerz, U. (1972). What ghetto males are like: Another look. In Guterman, Stanley S (1972) Black psyche: The modal personality patterns of black Americans xx, 330 pp Oxford, England: Glendessary.
  • Hardy, R. E., & Cull, J. G. (1973). Climbing ghetto walls: Disadvantagement, delinquency and rehabilitation. Oxford, England: Charles C Thomas.
  • Hayes-Bautista, D. E. (2004). Community Action Research with Census Data: The Latino Coalition for a New Los Angeles, 1992-1993. In Latino social policy: A participatory research model (pp. 229-244). New York, NY: Haworth Press.
  • Hreshko, J. L. (1977). Antecedents of locus of control among young urban males: Race, residence, birth order, and family variables. Hreshko, James L : Brigham Young U.
  • Kling, J. R., Liebman, & Katz, L. F. (2005). Bullets don't got no name: Consequences of fear in the ghetto. In Discovering successful pathways in children's development: Mixed methods in the study of childhood and family life (pp. 243-281). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Meers, D. R. (1973). Definitions, perceptions and accommodations to mental illness of low income, ghetto resident Black families. Meers, Dale R : Catholic U of America.
  • Parnell, M., & Vanderkloot, J. (1989). Ghetto children: Children growing up in poverty. In Children in family contexts: Perspectives on treatment (pp. 437-462). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Reichert, M. C. (1985). Coping and resistance in a Catholic ghetto. Reichert, Michael C : U Pennsylvania.
  • Risley, T., Hart, B., & Doke, L. (1972). Operant language development: The outline of a therapeutic technology. In Schiefelbusch, Richard L (1972) Language of the mentally retarded xxii, 252 pp Baltimore, MD, US: University Park Press.
  • Toto, J. J. (1983). The Black inner-city ghetto child: Cultural and developmental obstacles in object formation. Toto, Joseph J : Nova U.
  • Wilson, W. J. (1993). The ghetto underclass: Social science perspectives (updated ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Zelkovitz, B. M. (1977). The student role and the student response: A naturalistic observation study of the socialization process in a ghetto school kindergarten classroom. Zelkovitz, Bruce M : Washington U, St Louis.

Papers[edit | edit source]

  • Amada, G., & Swartz, J. (1972). Social work in a college mental health program. Social Casework Vol 53(9) Nov 1972, 528-533.
  • Averick, L. S. (1976). Cop and blow or "A taste of honey." Transactional Analysis Journal, 6(1), 15-17.
  • Banerjee, M. M. (1997). Strengths in a slum: A paradox? Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 22(1), 45-58.
  • Bennett, F. (1968). Research viewed from inside the test tube. American Psychologist, 23(11), 827-828.
  • Berg, K. R. (1975). I. A community psychologist in the Hartford ghetto: 1968. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 26(4), 222-225.
  • Berg, K. R. (1975). II. The Hartford ghetto, 1973: Pitfalls and problems of community psychology. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 26(4), 225-227.
  • Berg, K. R. (1977). Trust as a factor in working with residents of a Black community. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 28(8), 619-620.
  • Borowitz, G. H., Costello, J., & Hirsch, J. G. (1972). Clinical observations of ghetto four-year-olds: Organization, involvement, interpersonal responsiveness, and psychosexual content of play. Journal of Youth and Adolescence Vol 1(1) Mar 1972, 59-79.
  • Brush, B. L. (2004). Nursing Care and Context in Theresienstadt. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 26(8), 860-871.
  • Carp, F. M. (1978). Review of Life's career--Aging: Cultural variations on growing old: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 23 (12), Dec, 1978.
  • Carter, W. B. (1971). Suicide, death, and ghetto life. Life-Threatening Behavior Vol 1(4) Win 1971, 264-271.
  • Christmas, J. J. (1974). Rehabilitation: General and special considerations. Psychiatric Annals, 4(4), 49-59.
  • Crawford, T. J. (1973). Police overperception of ghetto hostility. Journal of Police Science & Administration, 1(2), 168-174.
  • Davis, E. B., & Ballard, B. L. (1974). The poverty cycle and the paraprofessionals: Development and its vicissitudes in the Black ghetto. Psychiatric Annals, 4(4), 33-45.
  • Dembo, R., & Burgos, W. (1976). A framework for developing drug abuse prevention strategies for young people in ghetto areas. Journal of Drug Education, 6(4), 313-325.
  • Einwohner, R. L. (2006). Identity Work and Collective Action in a Repressive Context: Jewish Resistance on the "Aryan Side" of the Warsaw Ghetto. Social Problems, 53(1), 38-56.
  • Einwohner, R. L. (2007). Leadership, authority, and collective action: Jewish resistance in the ghettos of Warsaw and Vilna. American Behavioral Scientist, 50(10), 1306-1326.
  • Elkind, D. (1970). From ghetto school to college campus: Some discontinuities and continuities. University of Toledo Law Review No 2-3 Spr 1970, 607-614.
  • Fabian, A. E. (1972). The disturbed child in the ghetto day care center: The role of the psychiatric consultant. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry Vol 11(3) Jul 1972, 467-491.
  • Feder, S. (1973). Clerambault in the ghetto: Pure erotomania reconsidered. International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Vol 2(2) May 1973, 240-247.
  • Feigelson, E. B., & Cadden, J. J. (1974). Changing patterns of drug abuse in New York City. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 1(3), 371-378.
  • Foster, W., & Seltzer, A. (1986). A portrayal of individual excellence in the urban ghetto. Journal of Counseling & Development, 64(9), 579-582.
  • Frankel, A., & O'Hearn, T. C. (1996). Similarities in responses to extreme and unremitting stress: Cultures of communities under siege. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 33(3), 485-502.
  • Frohlich, R., & Peters, S. B. (2007). PR bunnies caught in the agency ghetto? Gender stereotypes, organizational factors, and women's careers in PR agencies. Journal of Public Relations Research, 19(3), 229-254.
  • From, G. (1974). Counseling emotionally disturbed clients who live in a ghetto. Journal of the Bronx State Hospital, 2(4), 198-202.
  • Gersie, A. (1995). Arts therapies practice in inner-city slums: Beyond the installation of hope. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 22(3), 207-215.
  • Greenberg, J. W., & Davidson, H. H. (1972). Home background and school achievement of black urban ghetto children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Vol 42(5) Oct 1972, 803-810.
  • Gregory, R. J., & Carter, J. H. (1973). The geographic pattern of heroin use in a southern community. Drug Forum Vol 2(2) Win 1973, 179-185.
  • Heacock, D. R. (1976). The Black slum child and the problem of aggression. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 36(3), 219-226.
  • Hiller, G. G. (2007). Education and formation for ghetto kids. Vierteljahresschrift fur Heilpadagogik und ihre Nachbargebiete, 76(1), 4-9.
  • Hills, G. E., Granbois, D. H., & Patterson, J. M. (1973). Black consumer perceptions of food store attributes. Journal of Marketing Vol 37(2) Apr 1973, 47-57.
  • Hirsch, M., & Spitzer, L. (2002). "We would not have come without you": Generations of nostalgia. American Imago, 59(3), 253-276.
  • Holahan, C. J. (1976). Environmental effects on outdoor social behavior in a low-income urban neighborhood: A naturalistic investigation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6(1), 48-63.
  • Isambert-Jamati, V. (1973). "Socio-cultural handicaps" and their educational remedies. Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle No 4 Oct 1973, 303-318.
  • Jackson, R. H. (1975). Some aspirations of lower class Black mothers. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 6(2), 171-181.
  • Kaplan, S. R., & Roman, M. (1973). The organization and delivery of mental health services in the ghetto: The Lincoln Hospital experience. Oxford, England: Praeger.
  • Karger, H. J. (2007). The "poverty tax" and America's low-income households. Families in Society, 88(3), 413-417.
  • Keller, P. A. (1972). Situational set and need for approval as variables in police recruits' perceptions of ghetto residents. Keller, Peter A : U Miami.
  • Kidder, S. J., & Aubertine, H. E. (1972). Attitude change and number of plays of a social simulation game. Center for Social Organization of Schools Report, Johns Hopkins U Dec 1972, 24.
  • Kiev, A., & Anumonye, A. (1976). Suicidal behavior in a Black ghetto: A comparative study. International Journal of Mental Health, 5(2), 50-59.
  • Krystinska, K. E., & Lester, D. (2002). Suicide in the Lodz ghetto 1941-1944. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 33(2), 21-26.
  • Lager, E., & Zwerling, I. (1980). Time orientation and psychotherapy in the ghetto. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137(3), 306-309.
  • Larose, F., & Ponton, M. (2000). Locus of control and perceptions of environmental risk factor: Inhabitants of slums facing domestic garbage. Swiss Journal of Psychology/Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Psychologie/Revue Suisse de Psychologie, 59(3), 137-149.
  • Lynch, D. J. (1974). A-B type and the relationship between police officers and ghetto citizens. Community Mental Health Journal, 10(4), 434-440.
  • Mayer, J. E., & Rosenblatt, A. (1975). Encounters with danger: Social workers in the ghetto. Sociology of Work & Occupations, 2(3), 227-245.
  • Mayo, J. A. (1974). The significance of sociocultural variables in the psychiatric treatment of Black outpatients. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 15(6), 471-482.
  • McConahay, J. B. (1977). Review of Urban problems: Psychological inquiries: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 22 (4), Apr, 1977.
  • Meers, D. R. (1974). Traumatic and cultural distortions of psychoneurotic symptoms in a Black ghetto. The Annual of Psychoanalysis Vol 2 1974, 368-386.
  • Meers, D. R. (1992). Sexual identity in the ghetto. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 9(2), 99-116.
  • Mills, T. C., Stall, R., Pollack, L., Paul, J. P., Binson, D., Canchola, J., et al. (2001). Health-related characteristics of men who have sex with men: A comparison of those living in "gay ghettos" with those living elsewhere. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6), 980-983.
  • Moinat, S. M., Raine, W. J., Burbeck, S. L., & Davison, K. K. (1972). Black ghetto residents as rioters. Journal of Social Issues Vol 28(4) 1972, 45-62.
  • Morse, D. W. (1976). Aging in the ghetto: Themes expressed by older Black men and women living in a northern industrial city. Industrial Gerontology, 3(1), 1-10.
  • Murphy, A. K. (2007). The suburban ghetto: The legacy of Herbert Gans in understanding the experience of poverty in recently impoverished American suburbs. City & Community, 6(1), 21-37.
  • Nachumi, G. (1974). Adult psychiatric clinic. Psychiatric Annals, 4(5), 23-35.
  • Nicks, T. L. (1971). The Stage is the Play: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 16 (2), Feb, 1971.
  • Philliber, W. W. (1977). Patterns of alienation in inner city ghettos. Human Relations, 30(4), 303-310.
  • Ponting, J., Fitzpatrick, J., & Quarantelli, E. (1975). Police perceptions of riot participants and dynamics. International Journal of Group Tensions, 5(3), 163-170.
  • Reiff, R. (1972). Paraprofessionals--Questions from a Traditionalist: Comment. Professional Psychology, 3(4), 337-339.
  • Richter, H.-E. (1974). Community development and psychotherapy in ghettos. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 24(4-6), 269-280.
  • Rioch, M. J. (1972). Paraprofessionals--Questions from a Traditionalist: Comment. Professional Psychology, 3(4), 334-335.
  • Rosen, E., & Venkatesh, S. A. (2008). A "perversion" of choice: Sex work offers just enough in Chicago's urban ghetto. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 37(4), 417-441.
  • Rosenthal, R. A., Bruce, B., Dunne, F., & Ladd, F. C. (1976). Different strokes: Pathways to maturity in the Boston ghetto: A report to the Ford Foundation. Oxford, England: Westview.
  • Rowe, C. E. (1994). Musings of an analyst on a home visit to a ghetto child. Contemporary Psychotherapy Review Vol 9 Fal 1994, 82-90.
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