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A Gerbil is a small mammal of the order Rodentia. Once known simply as "desert rats", the gerbil subfamily includes about 110 species of African, Indian, and Asian rodents, including sand rats and jirds, all of which are adapted to arid habitats. Most are primarily diurnal  (though some, including the common household pet, do exhibit crepuscular behavior), and almost all are omnivorous.
One Mongolian species, Meriones unguiculatus, also known as the Clawed Jird, is a gentle and hardy animal that has become a popular pet. It was first brought to the United States in 1954 by Dr. Victor Schwentker for use in research.
Gerbils are typically between six and twelve inches (150 to 300 mm) long, including the tail which makes up approximately one half of their total length. One species however, the Great Gerbil, or Rhombomys opimus, originally native to Turkmenistan, can grow to more than 16 inches (400 mm) in length. The average adult gerbil weighs approximately 2 1/2 ounces. As of August 19, 2003, officials in western China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region began releasing eagles to combat the damage they say the great gerbils have done to eleven million acres (46,000 km²) of grassland.
- 1 Gerbils as pets
- 2 Life in the desert
- 3 Behavior
- 4 Gerbil social behavior
- 5 Fighting
- 6 Mating
- 7 Raising young
- 8 Reasons for popularity
- 9 Health concerns
- 10 Captive-bred gerbil colors
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
Gerbils as pets[edit | edit source]
Gerbils were first introduced to the pet industry in 1964. These were the Mongolian gerbils. Their value as pets was soon appreciated and they are now found in pet shops all over the UK and USA. It is illegal to purchase, import, or keep a gerbil as a pet in the U.S. state of California.
Life in the desert[edit | edit source]
The typical Mongolian gerbil is a desert species, and lives underground in a network of tunnels, which include chambers with families. Adults move away and meet others from other chambers, extend the network, create their own chamber, and breed. Gerbils come up for food and water; there is evidence of hoarding food, but gerbils will eat a lot of fatty foods in one sitting, suggesting forming of fat reserves too. Gerbils do not hibernate and are diurnal. Their long tails help them to balance when they stand up on their hind legs.
Gerbil movement is more like hopping than running, and their large back feet are furry on the bottom to protect them from the heat of the sand. Gerbils are fast but overly inquisitive. In their natural environment, they are mostly insectivores, and additionally gain moisture from desert plants that store water in them. A gerbil has fur all over its body, including the tail, as this prevents it from getting sunburned.
Behavior[edit | edit source]
General gerbil behavior[edit | edit source]
Normal gerbil behavior includes jumping, climbing, chewing, and digging. The digging motions are very common: the gerbil moves its arms rapidly.
They are curious and not easily startled. They love to burrow and hide.
Gerbils are social animals, and prefer to live in groups. Often very large groups live well together, as long as the living environment is big enough; otherwise, the gerbils may become frustrated and attack one another. Groups of females are much more quarrelsome than groups of males, but if fighting occurs among males it is usually much more vicious. Males will very rarely attack females.
Habits[edit | edit source]
Gerbils are not naturally aggressive creatures; much like hamsters, they would rather nibble a potential source of food and only fully bite when threatened. Gerbils do not make noises often, although some gerbils can squeal when scared. To communicate with other members of the species they 'thump' repeatedly using their back legs. This is often seen when a gerbil is frightened to warn other gerbils of the danger.
Food[edit | edit source]
Sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, and peanuts are favorites of most gerbils, though they have individual preferences and too many sunflower seeds may result in illness. They also enjoy fruit peels such as that from a banana. In fact, gerbils will eat almost anything: dog biscuits and chews; rat food; rabbit food; guinea pig food; oats; and various "special" treats from pet shops, which in fact were not appreciated nearly as much as some parsnip cores. Most weeds dubbed as safe for grazing animals like rabbits or guinea pigs can be eaten by gerbils as well. Pet gerbils will especially enjoy live crickets, grasshoppers, and locusts as food, tearing the insect apart and eating the juicy insides. It is good for you to feed your gerbil vegetables such as carrots or an apple. Take care not to feed them too much of these foods as they contain a lot of moisture and can cause an upset stomach.
Avoid lettuces, as the nitrates can prevent oxygenation of the blood, and citrus fruits, which are known carcinogens. Sugary treats are bad for gerbils; they rot the teeth and the sugar is hard for a gerbil to digest. Lastly, do not feed your gerbils food with high water content, such as celery or watermelon, as the water will cause the gerbil to have the runs, or "wet-tail" as it is commonly known.
Drink[edit | edit source]
Although gerbils can go without water for a few days, provided they have plenty of moist food, they will always take water if it is available.
Cleansing[edit | edit source]
Gerbils do not need water to get clean - what cleans them is a sand bath. When taking gerbils out for exercise, a small basin of cool sand will be much appreciated, and true to instinct, a gerbil will roll over in the sand. The effect is instantaneous - their fur becomes much smoother and shinier.
[edit | edit source]
Gerbils often have what looks like boxing matches; this is most common amongst young gerbils (gerbil "pups"). These are gentle play fights which usually end in the winner pinning down the loser and grooming it. However, if a pair of gerbils are fighting closely in a ball shape, with both gerbils biting deeply and drawing blood, careful but swift intervention is in order by the pet owner, using a jar or oven mitts to avoid getting bitten.
Gerbils like to sleep in a group, often on top of each other. Sometimes they will absentmindedly groom each other when half asleep. Gerbils have a form of purring called "bruxing" which they do when they are being groomed or while they enjoy being stroked in the hand by their owner.
Squeaks can occasionally be heard from them, and a squeak is usually an indication of annoyance. When another gerbil steps on another without thinking, it will give a squeak, or when a gerbil tries to steal another's food, it will turn with a squeak, and when a male tries to mate an unsuspecting female, she may well turn around sharply to face him and squeak at him. Gerbil pups will squeak more often when very young, sometimes when feeding or if they have strayed from the nest.
Gerbils will raise their hackles and arch their backs to show aggression, often turned to the side and leaning against the other gerbil's body. Usually this is a warning that a fight is about to occur, and if this behavior is observed it is wise to quickly intervene.
Gerbils will also alert each other to danger by thumping on their hind legs, usually triple thumps repeated in a steady sequence. Gerbils will also thump when sexually excited. Younger gerbils are more likely to start thumping than older ones.
Fighting[edit | edit source]
Gerbils, when fighting, may chase each other around frantically, amid small screams of protest by the victim. This is usually a case of bullying by one gerbil. If the feeling is mutual, the gerbils will stare each other down, pounce on one another and clamp their teeth around each other's neck, faces, or such in an attempt to draw blood. Gerbils can injure each other seriously in this way. Gerbil fighting is very loud and may last a long time. Gerbils often fight on their hind legs swiping at their opponent with their forepaws. Gerbils fighting will usually be on top of each other, rolling over and over rapidly. If gerbils are left to resolve the dispute, they will most likely fight to the death. A lead up to a fight can include chasing, persistent sniffing and following, and one gerbil forcing another to stay in a single area. A defeated gerbil will often be quiet for some time and remain in a single area. They will very likely stay away from their attacker for some time unless they attack it again. If the fight turns into a chase, the gerbil chasing will most likely try to bite the legs and tail of the opponent.
Mating[edit | edit source]
Gerbils will mate for several hours, in frequent short bursts followed by short chases where the female allows the male to catch her. Once he catches her, the female will squeak and make flick motions to get the male off of her. Males will not attack females except in rare circumstances which may also include them having been separated from their original mates, or widowed. A female may attack a male, but usually he is more than a match for her.
Raising young[edit | edit source]
Baby stages[edit | edit source]
When first born, gerbil babies are blind, deaf, hairless, and helpless. They drink their mother's milk. The young squeak softly when feeding and being picked up. Eventually they grow bigger, and within a week, they will begin to show skin pigment, indicating their possible fur color and markings. Soon after this, a thin downy fur will grow on them, and they will begin to make their fast yet unsteady way out of the nest when the bed is disturbed. This survival technique helps the babies get out of harm's way in case of a territory invasion.
The fur will grow thicker and longer, and by three weeks some of them may have one of their eyes open. Around this point, they begin to be weaned, eating food and not relying so much on milk. At this point, it would help to provide a soft food like an oat and milk mixture for them. The gerbils will become more active and their tails will lengthen and give them more balance so they can stand upright. When fully weaned and beginning to play fight with one another, they will soon be ready to move away, if required.
A mother will often be stern with how quickly the babies are weaned if she is expecting a new litter. A less fertile mother may let her litter suckle for longer. Older mothers often do not have as good a milk supply, and need plentiful water available to replenish it.
A litter will be of about 4-8 gerbils on average, although losses due to runts, defects and infanticide, or occasional, unexplainable persecution from other gerbils sometimes make the eventual litter one or two short.
Reproducing[edit | edit source]
The most common ways of checking the sex of a young gerbil are: 1) Turning the gerbil over and checking the gap size between the genital organs of the gerbil. Female gerbils have a small gap between the two areas, while males have a much larger gap. 2) Although not always clear in childhood and adolescence, male gerbils have a fur covered bulge at the base of their tails, on their underside. This is their scrotal pouch. Females have smooth, round back ends.
Males are generally larger than females in adulthood, in length, height, and width. A gerbil can also be sexed by looking at its underside when it is a blind, deaf baby. There will be either a thick line in the middle of the stomach (the scent marker) if it is a male, or eight dots (four on the left side, four on the right) (soon to be teats) if it is a female.
Reasons for popularity[edit | edit source]
There are several reasons for the popularity of gerbils as household pets. The animals are typically non-aggressive, and they rarely bite unprovoked or without stress. They are small and easy to handle, since they are sociable creatures that enjoy the company of humans and other gerbils. Gerbils also have adapted their kidneys to produce a minimum of waste to conserve body fluids which makes them very clean with little odor.
The pets are incredibly industrious and will explore new environments, and they will build, construct, and enjoy elaborate networks of tunnels if given an environment that allows for it. This is easily observable as gerbils are active during all hours of the day, as opposed to the more nocturnal rodent pets. They can "recycle" everyday paper-based items, such as cardboard products like toilet paper tubes and brown paper bags, into toys and nesting material, chewing the material into small bits. If the chewed material is allowed to accumulate to a depth of 4-6 inches deep, they will tunnel through it.
Health concerns[edit | edit source]
Teeth problems[edit | edit source]
Misalignment of incisors due to injury or malnutrition may result in overgrowth, which can cause injury to the roof of the mouth. Symptoms include a dropped or loss of appetite, drooling, weight loss, or foul breath.
Trauma[edit | edit source]
Neglect[edit | edit source]
A common problem for all small rodents is neglect, which can cause the gerbils to not receive adequate food and water, causing serious health concerns, including dehydration, starvation, stomach ulcers, eating of bedding material, and cannibalism.
Wet tail[edit | edit source]
While gerbils do not get wet tail, diarrhea can occur, usually caused by a virulent strain of E. coli or Salmonella, which is most common among weaning gerbils (3-6 weeks). Symptoms include lethargy, thinness, increased irritability, hunched posture, fluid or bloody diarrhea, and a wet, soiled anal area and tail. It is treatable with antibiotics, yet the gerbil may remain a carrier of the germ and spread it to other uninfected gerbils. For this reason, a gerbil that has had diarrhea should not be chosen to breed with.
Epilepsy[edit | edit source]
Between 20 percent and 50 percent of all pet gerbils have the seizure disorder epilepsy. The seizures are caused by fright, handling, or a new environment. The attacks can be mild to severe but do not typically appear to have any long-term effects, except for rare cases where death results from very severe seizures.
Tumors[edit | edit source]
Tumors, both benign and malignant, are fairly common in pet gerbils, and are most common in females over the age of 2. Usually, the tumors involve the ovaries, causing an extended abdomen, or the skin cancer, with tumors most often developing around the ears, feet, mid-abdomen, and base of the tail, appearing as a lump or abscess.
Tail sloughing[edit | edit source]
Gerbils can lose their tails due to improper handling, being attacked by another animal, or getting their tail stuck. The first sign is a loss of fur from the tip of the tail, then, the skinless tail dies off and sloughs, with the stump usually healing without complications.
Tyzzer's disease[edit | edit source]
The most common infectious disease in gerbils is Tyzzer's disease, which is often caused by either stress or bacteria, and produces symptoms such as ruffled fur, lethargy, hunched posture, poor appetite, diarrhea, and often death. It quickly spreads between gerbils in close contact.
Deafness and inner ear problems[edit | edit source]
A problem with the inner ear can be spotted by a gerbil leaning to one side quite obviously. The fluids in the ears affect balance. However, this does not appear to affect the gerbils too much, which have an aptitude of just getting on with things, and getting used to their conditions.
Extremes of temperature[edit | edit source]
As desert animals, it is easy to make the mistake that as gerbils are used to bitter cold in the night and boiling heat in the day, they can be left in direct sunlight or in subzero temperatures. This can cause damage to a gerbil. The reason they survive in the desert is because they take frequent shelter in their tunnels. Many gerbils living together and plenty of bedding helps gerbils stay warm. In heat, they will trample their bedding flat. Heat can make gerbils noticeably lethargic, so the choice of shade is important. They do sweat when very hot, and become thirsty more often than usual.
Respiratory problems[edit | edit source]
Forgetting to clean a pet gerbil's cage for weeks can be a problem. Ammonia will build up, and gerbils may have trouble breathing. In the wild, gerbils will dig more burrows when their current one is filthy, but in cages this cannot happen. Symptoms of a respiratory infection may include exhaustion, apathy, and a strange clicking or wheezing noise. One way to help solve this problem is to give the gerbil antibiotics.
Birth defects[edit | edit source]
Gerbils are quite hardy, and it is rare for them to get sick. Seizures are common. Direct inbreeding may produce blind or deaf young with short life expectancies, and missing limbs.
Swimming[edit | edit source]
Due to their small limbs, they suffer from an inability to swim well.
Captive-bred gerbil colors[edit | edit source]
There are many color varieties of gerbil available in pet shops today, generally the result of years of selective breeding.
Another species of gerbil has also been recently introduced to the pet industry: the Fat-tailed Gerbil, or duprasi. They’re smaller than the common Mongolian gerbils and have long soft coats and a short, fat tail, appearing more like a hamster. There is a variation on the normal duprasi coat which is more gray in color, which may be a mutation, or it may be the result of hybrids between the Egyptian and Algerian subspecies of duprasi.
A long-haired mutation, a grey agouti or chinchilla mutation, white spotting, and possibly a dilute mutation have also appeared in Shaw's Jirds, and white spotting and a dilute mutation have shown up in Bushy-tailed Jirds.
References[edit | edit source]
- Schwentker, V. "The Gerbil. A new laboratory animal." Ill Vet 6: 5-9, 1963.
- StateSmall Animal Laws
- Anastasi, Donna; Complete Care Made Easy-Gerbils: The Complete Guide to Gerbil Care. Irvine, Bowtie Press 2005
- Behaviour. The Gerbil Information Page. Ed. Karin van Veen. Nov. 2001. Dutch Gerbil Study Group. Gerbil Genetics Group.
- Gerbil Care Handbook. The American Gerbil Society.
- Hamsters - Medical Concerns
- Gerbil FAQ
- Gerbil Care
- Michigan Humane Society: Veterinary Care
- Anastasi, Donna. Gerbils: The Complete Guide to Gerbil Care. Irvine: Bowtie Press, 2005.
- "Fat-Tailed Gerbil (Duprasi)." The Gerbil Information Page. Ed. Karin van Veen. Nov. 2001. Dutch Gerbil Study Group. Gerbil Genetics Group. <http://www.gerbil-info.com/html/otherduprasiuk.htm>.
- "Pachyuromys duprasis - Fat Tailed Gerbil."e-Gerbil. Ed. Eddie Cope. 2006. <http://www.egerbil.com/duprasi.html>.
- "The Pallid Gerbil - Gerbillus perpallidus."e-Gerbil. Ed. Eddie Cope. 2006. <http://www.egerbil.com/pallid.html>.
- "Gerbil Genetics."NGS Frontpage. Ed. Julian Barker. 30 Nov. 2004. The National Gerbil Society.<http://www.gerbils.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/gerbils/genetics.htm#Mutations>
- "Care and management of Shaw's Jirds - Meriones shawi."e-Gerbil. Ed. Eddie Cope. 2006. <http://www.egerbil.com/shawsjird.html>.
- "Sekeetamys calurus - Bushy Tailed Jirds."e-Gerbil. Ed. Eddie Cope. 2006. <http://www.egerbil.com/bushy.html>.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
- McKenna, M. C. and S. K. Bell. 1997. Classification of Mammals above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York.
- Musser, G. G. and M. D. Carleton. 1993. Family Muridae. Pp. 501-755 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.
- Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Vol. 2. Johns Hopkins University Press, London.
- Pavlinov, I. Ya., Yu. A. Dubrovskiy, O. L. Rossolimo, E. G. Potapova. 1990. Gerbils of the world. Nauka, Moscow.
Papers[edit | edit source]
Abramsky, Z., Rosenzweig, M. L., & Subach, A. (2002). Measuring the benefit of habitat selection: Behavioral Ecology Vol 13(4) Aug 2002, 497-502.
- Araki, H., Yamamoto, T., Futagami, K., Karasawa, Y., Hino, N., Kawasaki, H., et al. (2001). Chronic methamphetamine administration inhibits cerebral ischemia-induced hyperactivity in Mongolian gerbils: Physiology & Behavior Vol 74(1-2) Sep 2001, 127-131.
- Bellomo, M., Marini, H., Adamo, E. B., Catania, M. A., Mannucci, C., Squadrito, F., et al. (2006). Vascular endothelial growth factor induces brain erythropoietin expression? : Functional Neurology Vol 21(2) Apr-Jun 2006, 87-91.
- Bian, L., & Chertoff, M. E. (1998). Differentiation of cochlear pathophysiology in ears damaged by salicylate or a pure tone using a nonlinear systems identification technique: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Vol 104(4) Oct 1998, 2261-2271.
- Bradley, B. F., Starkey, N. J., Brown, S. L., & Lea, R. W. (2007). The effects of prolonged rose odor inhalation in two animal models of anxiety: Physiology & Behavior Vol 92(5) Dec 2007, 931-938.
- Bridges, N. J., & Starkey, N. J. (2004). Sex differences in Mongolian gerbils in four tests of anxiety: Physiology & Behavior Vol 83(1) Oct 2004, 119-127.
- Brummelte, S., & Teuchert-Noodt, G. (2007). Density of dopaminergic fibres in the prefrontal cortex of gerbils is sensitive to aging: Behavioral and Brain Functions 3 Mar 2007 ArtID 14.
- Budinger, E., Laszcz, A., Lison, H., Scheich, H., & Ohl, F. W. (2008). Non-sensory cortical and subcortical connections of the primary auditory cortex in Mongolian gerbils: Bottom-up and top-down processing of neuronal information via field AI: Brain Research Vol 1220 Jul 2008, 2-32.
- Cao, D.-H., Xu, J.-F., Xue, R.-H., Zheng, W.-F., & Liu, Z.-L. (2004). Protective effect of chronic ethyl docosahexaenoate administration on brain injury in ischemic gerbils: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 79(4) Dec 2004, 651-659.
- Clark, M. M., & Galef, B. G. (2000). Why some male Mongolian gerbils may help at the nest: Testosterone, asexuality and alloparenting: Animal Behaviour Vol 59(4) Apr 2000, 801-806.
- Clark, M. M., & Galef, B. G., Jr. (2001). Age-related changes in paternal responses of gerbils parallel changes in their testosterone concentrations: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 39(3) Nov 2001, 179-187.
- Clark, M. M., Liu, C., & Galef, B. G., Jr. (2001). Effects of consanguinity, exposure to pregnant females, and stimulation from young on male gerbils' responses to pups: Developmental Psychobiology Vol 39(4) Dec 2001, 257-264.
- Emadi, G., Richter, C.-P., & Dallos, P. (2004). Stiffness of the Gerbil Basilar Membrane: Radial and Longitudinal Variations: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 91(1) Jan 2004, 474-488.
- Gleich, O., Hamann, I., Klump, G. M., Kittel, M., & Strutz, J. (2003). Boosting GABA improves impaired auditory temporal resolution in the gerbil: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 14(14) Oct 2003, 1877-1880.
- Grund, T., Teuchert-Noodt, G., Busche, A., Neddens, J., Brummelte, S., Moll, G. H., et al. (2007). Administration of oral methylphenidate during adolescence prevents suppressive development of dopamine projections into prefrontal cortex and amygdala after an early pharmacological challenge in gerbils: Brain Research Vol 1176 Oct 2007, 124-132.
- Himeda, T., Hayakawa, N., Tounai, H., Sakuma, M., Kato, H., & Araki, T. (2005). Alterations of interneurons of the gerbil hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: Effect of pitavastatin: Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 30(11) Nov 2005, 2014-2025.
- Janac, B., Selakovic, V., & Radenovic, L. (2008). Temporal patterns of motor behavioural improvements by MK-801 in Mongolian gerbils submitted to different duration of global cerebral ischemia: Behavioural Brain Research Vol 194(1) Dec 2008, 72-78.
- Kang, T.-C., An, S.-J., Park, S.-K., Hwang, I. K., Seo, M.-O., Kim, H. S., et al. (2003). The somatostatin receptors in the normal and epileptic hippocampus of the gerbil: Subtype-specific localization and its alteration: Brain Research Vol 986(1-2) Oct 2003, 91-102.
- Klaus, U., Weinandy, R., & Gattermann, R. (2000). Circadian activity rhythms and sensitivity to noise in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): Chronobiology International Vol 17(2) 2000, 137-145.
- Lee, T.-H., Yang, J.-T., Ko, Y.-S., Kato, H., Itoyama, Y., & Kogure, K. (2008). Influence of ischemic preconditioning on levels of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and their high-affinity receptors in hippocampus following forebrain ischemia: Brain Research Vol 1187 Jan 2008, 1-11.
- Lorrio, S., Sobrado, M., Arias, E., Roda, J. M., Garcia, A. G., & Lopez, M. G. (2007). Galantamine postischemia provides neuroprotection and memory recovery against transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 322(2) Aug 2007, 591-599.
- Lumia, A. R., Westervelt, M. O., & Rieder, C. A. (1975). Effects of olfactory bulb ablation and androgen on marking and agonistic behavior in male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus): Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Vol 89(9) Nov 1975, 1091-1099.
- Mauck, M. C., Mancuso, K., Kuchenbecker, J. A., Connor, T. B., Jr., Hauswirth, W. W., Neitz, J., et al. (2008). Longitudinal evaluation of expression of virally delivered transgenes in gerbil cone photoreceptors: Visual Neuroscience Vol 25(3) May-Jun 2008, 273-282.
- Micic, D. V., Petronijevic, N. D., & Vucetic, S. S. (2003). Superoxide dismutase activity in the mongolian gerbil brain after acute poisoning with aluminum: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Vol 5(1) 2003, 49-56.
- Neher, E. (2007). Short-term plasticity turns plastic. Focus on "synaptic transmission at the calyx of held under in vivo-like activity levels." Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 98(2) Aug 2007, 577-578.
- Newlands, S. D., & Perachio, A. A. (2003). Central projections of the vestibular nerve: a review and single fiber study in the Mongolian gerbil: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 60(5-6) Jun 2003, 475-495.
- Overstreet, E. H., III, Richter, C.-P., Temchin, A. N., Cheatham, M. A., & Ruggero, M. A. (2003). High-frequency sensitivity of the mature gerbil cochlea and its development: Audiology & Neurotology Vol 8(1) Jan-Feb 2003, 19-27.
- Pecka, M., Brand, A., Behrend, O., & Grothe, B. (2008). Interaural time difference processing in the mammalian medial superior olive: The role of glycinergic inhibition: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 28(27) Jul 2008, 6914-6925.
- Prates, E. J., & Guerra, R. F. (2005). Parental care and sexual interactions in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during the postpartum estrus: Behavioural Processes Vol 70(2) Sep 2005, 104-112.
- Randall, J. A., Rogovin, K., Parker, P. G., & Eimes, J. A. (2005). Flexible social structure of a desert rodent, Rhombomys opimus: Philopatry, kinship, and ecological constraints: Behavioral Ecology Vol 16(6) Nov-Dec 2005, 961-973.
- Randall, J. A., & Rogovin, K. A. (2002). Variation in and meaning of alarm calls in a social desert rodent Rhombomys opimus: Ethology Vol 108(6) Jun 2002, 513-527.
- Randall, J. A., Rogovin, K. A., & Shier, D. M. (2000). Antipredator behavior of a social desert rodent: Footdrumming and alarm calling in the great gerbil, Rhombomys opiums: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Vol 48(4) Sep 2000, 110-118.
- Razzoli, M., Valsecchi, P., & Palanza, P. (2005). Chronic exposure to low doses bisphenol A interferes with pair-bonding and exploration in female Mongolian gerbils: Brain Research Bulletin Vol 65(3) Apr 2005, 249-254.
- Rosenblatt, J. S. (1984). Symbiosis--New and Old: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 29 (12), Dec, 1984.
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- Salazar-Colocho, P., Lanciego, J. L., Del Rio, J., & Frechilla, D. (2008). Ischemia induces cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the gerbil hippocampus in response to neuronal death: Neuroscience Research Vol 61(1) May 2008, 27-37.
- Scheibler, E., Weinandy, R., & Gattermann, R. (2004). Social categories in families of Mongolian gerbils: Physiology & Behavior Vol 81(3) May 2004, 455-464.
- Scheibler, E., Weinandy, R., & Gattermann, R. (2006). Male expulsion in cooperative Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus): Physiology & Behavior Vol 87(1) Jan 2006, 24-30.
- Seidl, A. H., & Grothe, B. (2005). Development of Sound Localization Mechanisms in the Mongolian Gerbil is Shaped by Early Acoustic Experience: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 94(2) Aug 2005, 1028-1036.
- Shankar, S. (2001). Visually guided locomotion and computation of time-to-collision in the mongolian gerbil (meriones unguiculatus): Probing the neural substrates. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Shimozuru, M., Kikusui, T., Takeuchi, Y., & Mori, Y. (2006). Scent-marking and sexual activity may reflect social hierarchy among group-living male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus): Physiology & Behavior Vol 89(5) Dec 2006, 644-649.
- Shimozuru, M., Kikusui, T., Takeuchi, Y., & Mori, Y. (2008). Effects of isolation-rearing on the development of social behaviors in male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus): Physiology & Behavior Vol 94(3) Jun 2008, 491-500.
- Sim, Y.-J., Kim, H., Kim, J.-Y., Yoon, S.-J., Kim, S.-S., Chang, H.-K., et al. (2005). Long-term treadmill exercise overcomes ischemia-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in gerbils: Physiology & Behavior Vol 84(5) Apr 2005, 733-738.
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