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Schematic representation of a protein electrophoresis gel

Gamma globulins, or Ig's, are a class of proteins in the blood, identified by their position after serum protein electrophoresis. The most significant gamma globulins are immunoglobulins.

Injections[edit | edit source]

Gamma globulin injections are usually given in an attempt to temporarily boost a patient's immunity against disease. Injections are most commonly used on patients who have been exposed to hepatitis A or measles, or to make a donor and a kidney recipient compatible regardless of blood type of tissue match. Injections are also used to boost immunity in patients who cannot produce gamma globulins naturally because of an immune deficiency, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia and hyper IgM syndrome. Such injections are less common in modern medical practice than they were previously, and injections of gamma globulin previously recommended for travelers have largely been replaced by the use of hepatitis A vaccine.

Gamma globulin infusions are also used to treat immunological diseases, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), a disease in which the platelets are being attacked by antibodies, leading to seriously low platelet counts. Gamma globulin apparently causes the spleen to ignore the antibody-tagged platelets, thus allowing them to survive and function.

Gamma globulin injections also provide substantial benefit to many suffering from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, also known as Chronic Fatigue and Immune Disfunction Syndrome; Mylagic Encyphalitis; Chronic Epsteinn-Barr; Chronic Mono. In particular, it helps those who are greatly affected by changes in the barometric pressure (i.e., change in weather conditions, especially rain or other storms).

Another theory on how gamma globulin administration works in autoimmune disease is by overloading the mechanisms which degrade gamma globulins. Over loading the degradation mechanism causes the harmful gamma globulins to have a much shorter halflife in sera.

Pathology[edit | edit source]

An excess is known as hypergammaglobulinemia.

A disease of gamma globulins is called a "gammopathy" (for example, in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.)

Disease treatments[edit | edit source]

Kidney Transplant: Intravenous Gamma globulin was FDA approved in 2004 to reduce antibodies in a patient in kidney failure to allow that person to accept a kidney from a donor who has a different blood type, (ABO incompatible) or is an unacceptable tissue match. Dr. Stanley Jordan at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles pioneered this treatment.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  • Agrasal, C., Esquifino, A. I., Garcia-Bonacho, M., Reyes-Toso, C. F., & Cardinali, D. P. (2001). Effect of melatonin on 24H changes in plasma protein levels during the preclinical phase of Freund's adjuvant arthritis in rats: Chronobiology International Vol 18(3) 2001, 435-446.
  • Arruda, J. L., Sweitzer, S., Rutkowski, M. D., & DeLeo, J. A. (2000). Intrathecal anti-II-6 antibody and IgG attenuates peripheral nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia in the rat: Possible immune modulation in neuropathic pain: Brain Research Vol 879(1-2) Oct 2000, 216-225.
  • Croonenberghs, J., Wauters, A., Devreese, K., Verkerk, R., Scharpe, S., Bosmans, E., et al. (2002). Increased serum albumin, gamma globin, immunoglobulin IgG, and IgG2 and IgG4 in autism: Psychological Medicine Vol 32(8) Nov 2002, 1457-1463.
  • Herran, A., Sierra-Biddle, D., Garcia-Unzueta, M. T., Puente, J., Vazquez-Barquero, J. L., & Amado, J. A. (2005). The acute phase response in panic disorder: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology Vol 8(4) Dec 2005, 529-535.
  • Hunsel, F. V., Wauters, A., Vandoolaeghe, E., Neels, H., & et al. (1996). Lower total serum protein, albumin, and beta- and gamma-globulin in major and treatment-resistant depression: Effects of antidepressant treatments: Psychiatry Research Vol 65(3) Dec 1996, 159-169.
  • Ingram, C. R., Phegan, K. J., & Blumenthal, H. T. (1974). Significance of an aging-linked neuron binding gamma globulin fraction of sera: Journal of Gerontology Vol 29(1) Jan 1974, 20-27.
  • Kaldor, J., & Pitt, D. (1971). Down's syndrome and immunoglobulins: Journal of Mental Deficiency Research Vol 15(4) Dec 1971, 271-276.
  • Kozyrev, S. A., Nikitin, V. P., & Sherstnev, V. V. (1992). Selective participation of brain-specific nonhistone Np-3.5 proteins of chromatin in the processes of the reproduction of a defensive habit in response to food in edible snails: Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology Vol 22(2) Mar-Apr 1992, 120-127.
  • Moran, L. B., Duke, D. C., & Graeber, M. B. (2007). The microglial gene regulatory network activated by interferon-gamma: Journal of Neuroimmunology Vol 183(1-2) Feb 2007, 1-6.
  • Rose, R. W., Vorobyeva, A. G., Skipworth, J. D., Nicolas, E., & Rall, G. F. (2007). Altered levels of STAT1 and STAT3 influence the neuronal response to interferon gamma: Journal of Neuroimmunology Vol 192(1-2) Dec 2007, 145-156.
  • Schiff, J., & et al. (1977). Biochemical evidence of cure in schizophrenics: Transactional Analysis Journal Vol 7(2) Apr 1977, 178-182.
  • Schmid, H. (1972). Conditioning of a relative alpha- and gamma-globulin increase in the serum of rats: Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie Vol 4(1) 1972, 281-305.
  • Shibasaki, T., Oda, T., Imaki, T., Ling, N., & et al. (1993). Injection of anti-neuropeptide Y !g-globulin into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus decreases food intake in rats: Brain Research Vol 601(1-2) Jan 1993, 313-316.
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  • Tintore, M., Rovira, A., Rio, J., Tur, C., Pelayo, R., Nos, C., et al. (2008). Do oligoclonal bands add information to MRI in first attacks of multiple sclerosis? : Neurology Vol 70(13,Pt2) Mar 2008, 1079-1083.
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  • Ziolkowski, M., Korzybska, D., & Rybakowski, J. (1994). Plasma proteins as biochemical markers of alcohol abuse: Psychiatria Polska Vol 28(1) Jan-Feb 1994, 51-59.

External links[edit | edit source]

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