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Fertility medication is a method of fertility enhancement, drugs that enhances fertility. For women, fertility medication is used to stimulate follicle development of the ovary. For males, on the other hand, there are very few options of fertility medication.

Agents that enhance ovarian activity can be classified as either Gonadotropin releasing hormone, Estrogen antagonists or Gonadotropins.

Female

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Main article: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Either Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) itself or any of its agonists (i.e. Lupron) may be used. GnRH releases gonadotropins from the hypothalamus in the body.

Estrogen antagonists

Fertility medication inhibiting the effects of estrogen includes Clomiphene citrate and Aromatase inhibitors.

Clomiphene citrate

Main article: Clomiphene citrate

Clomiphene citrate is a SERM. It inhibits the negative feedback of estrogen and therefore stimulates ovulation.

Aromatase inhibitors

Main article: Aromatase inhibitor

Although primarily a breast cancer treatment, aromatase inhibitors can also work as fertility medication, probably by a mechanism similar to clomiphene citrate.

Gonadotropins

Main article: Gonadotropins

Gonadotropins are the hormones in the body that normally stimulate the gonads (testes and ovaries). For medication, they can be extracted from urine or by genetic modification.

Menotropins

Main article: Menotropins

Menotropins are urinary gonadotropins, i.e. they are extracted from the urine.

Recombinant gonadotropins

Recombinant gonadotropins are gonadotropins created by inserting the DNA coding it into bacteriae. The bacterial DNA is then called Recombinant DNA. Examples of recombinant FSH are Follistim and Gonal F, while Luveris is a recombinant LH.

Human chorionic gonadotropin

Main article: Human chorionic gonadotropin#Use as medication

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is normally produced during pregnancy. However, it can also replace LH as a fertility medication.

Other

hMG is a medication containing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Male

There is no effective medication to treat oligospermia, so other assisted reproductive technologies need to be used.

Adverse effects

Estrogen antagonists and gonadotropins may stimulate multiple follicles and other ovarian hormones leading to multiple birth and possible ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

See also

References


Template:Pregnancy

fr:Liste de médicaments liés à la fertilité