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|The rectus sheath, an example of a fascia.|
|Gray's||subject #104 376|
A fascia ( adjective fascial; from latin: "band") is a layer of fibrous tissue that permeates the human body. A fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together in much the same manner as plastic wrap can be used to hold the contents of sandwiches together. It consists of several layers: a superficial fascia, a deep fascia, and a subserous (or visceral) fascia and extends uninterrupted from the head to the tip of the toes.
Like ligaments, aponeuroses, and tendons, fasciae are dense regular connective tissues, containing closely packed bundles of collagen fibers oriented in a wavy pattern parallel to the direction of pull. Fasciae are consequently flexible structures able to resist great unidirectional tension forces until the wavy pattern of fibers has been straightened out by the pulling force. These collagen fibers are produced by the fibroblasts located within the fascia.
There exists some controversy about what structures are considered "fascia", and how fascia should be classified. The two most common systems are:
- the one specified in the 1983 edition of Nomina Anatomica (NA 1983)
- the one specified in the 1997 edition of Terminologia Anatomica (TA 1997)
|NA 1983||TA 1997||Description||Example|
|Superficial fascia||(not considered fascia in this system)||This is found in the subcutis in most regions of the body, blending with the reticular layer of the dermis.||Fascia of Scarpa|
|Deep fascia||Fascia of muscles||This is the dense fibrous connective tissue that interpenetrates and surrounds the muscles, bones, nerves and blood vessels of the body.||Transversalis fascia|
|Visceral fascia||Visceral fascia, parietal fascia||This suspends the organs within their cavities and wraps them in layers of connective tissue membranes.||Pericardium|
Fasciae are normally thought of as passive structures that transmit mechanical tension generated by muscular activities or external forces throughout the body. Some research suggest that fasciae might be able to contract independently and thus actively influence muscle dynamics.
The function of muscle fasciae is to reduce friction to minimize the reduction of muscular force. In doing so, fasciae:
1.Provide a sliding and gliding environment for muscles.
2.Suspend organs in their proper place.
3.Transmit movement from muscle to the bones they are attached to.
4.Provide a supportive and movable wrapping for nerves and blood vessels as they pass through and between muscles. 
- Myofascial pain
- Myofascial release
- Marieb, Elaine Nicpon; Hoehn, Katja (2007). Human anatomy & physiology, Pearson Education.
- Self Myofascial Release. URL accessed on 2010-08-17.
- Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology, 33, Thieme Stuttgart.
- Skandalakis, John E.; Skandalakis, P.N.; Skandalakis, L.J.; Skandalakis, J. (2002). Surgical Anatomy and Technique, 2nd Ed., 1–2, Atlanta, GA: Springer.
- (2005). Active fascial contractility: Fascia may be able to contract in a smooth muscle-like manner and thereby influence musculoskeletal dynamics. Medical Hypotheses 65 (2): 273–7.
- Faller, A; Schuenke, M (2004) The Human Body, Thieme, p 127
|Muscular system - edit|
|Muscular tissue | Muscle contraction | Muscles of the human body|
|Cardiac muscle | Skeletal muscle | Smooth muscle|
General anatomy of head and neck - head
Permanent (Incisor, Canine, Premolar, Molar) • Deciduous
Plica fimbriata • Median sulcus • Foramen cecum • Terminal sulcus • Frenulum linguae • Anterior tongue • Posterior tongue
|Palate/roof of mouth|
fascia (Masseteric fascia, Temporal fascia, Galea aponeurotica) • Scalp
Template:Neck general Template:Muscles of thorax and back
List of muscles of torso
splenius (capitis, cervicis) - erector spinae (iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis) - latissimus dorsi
rectus capitis posterior (major, minor) - obliquus capitis (inferior, superior)
intercostales (external, internal, innermost) - subcostales - transversus thoracis - levatores costarum - serratus posterior (inferior, superior) - diaphragm
obliques (external, internal) - transversus abdominis - rectus abdominis - pyramidalis - cremaster - quadratus lumborum
levator ani (iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus, puborectalis) - coccygeus
sphincter ani (externus, internus)
superficial perineal pouch (transversus perinei superficialis, bulbospongiosus, ischiocavernosus)
deep perineal pouch (transversus perinei profundus, sphincter urethrae membranaceae)
Template:Upper limb general Template:Lower limb general
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