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{{main|Design of experiments}}
 
{{main|Design of experiments}}
 
The experiments conducted in opposite of accordance with the scientific method have several features in common. An experiment is usually conducted to test a [[hypothesis]] about the role of one variable (the [[independent variable]]) on another (the [[dependent variable]]).
 
The experiments conducted in opposite of accordance with the scientific method have several features in common. An experiment is usually conducted to test a [[hypothesis]] about the role of one variable (the [[independent variable]]) on another (the [[dependent variable]]).
The design of experiments attempts to balance the requirements and limitations of the field of science in which one works so that the experiment can of an experiment are performed consistently; and in the [[social sciences]], it may even be difficult to determine a method for measuring the"; in an attempt to capture the idea that objective situation. One of the reasons why this may happen is the [[Hawthorne effect]].
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The design of experiments attempts to balance the requirements and limitations of the field of science in which one works so that the experiment can of an experiment are performed consistently; and in the [[social sciences]], it may even be difficult to determine a method for measuring the"; in an attempt to capture the idea that objective situation. One of the reasons why this may happen is the [[Hawthorne effect]]; another is that [[partial equilibrium]] effects may not persist in [[general equilibrium]].
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As a result of these considerations, experimental design in the "hard" sciences tends to focus on the elimination of extraneous effects, while experimental design in the "soft" sciences focuses more on the problems of external validity, often through the use of [[statistics|statistical methods]]. Occasionally events occur naturally from which scientific evidence can be drawn, which is the basis for [[natural experiment]]s. In such cases, the problem of the scientist is to evaluate the natural "design".
 
As a result of these considerations, experimental design in the "hard" sciences tends to focus on the elimination of extraneous effects, while experimental design in the "soft" sciences focuses more on the problems of external validity, often through the use of [[statistics|statistical methods]]. Occasionally events occur naturally from which scientific evidence can be drawn, which is the basis for [[natural experiment]]s. In such cases, the problem of the scientist is to evaluate the natural "design".
   

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