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|180px||Activity at an axon terminal: Neuron A is transmitting a signal at the axon terminal to neuron B (receiving). Features: 1. Mitochondrion. 2. synaptic vesicle with neurotransmitters. 3. Autoreceptor. 4. Synapse with neurotransmitter released (serotonin). 5. Postsynaptic receptors activated by neurotransmitter (induction of a postsynaptic potential). 6. Calcium channel. 7. Exocytosis of a vesicle. 8. Recaptured neurotransmitter.|}|
An amino acid neurotransmitter is a chemical substance which is able to transmit a nerve message across a synapse. Neurotransmitters (chemicals) are packaged into vesicles that cluster beneath the axon terminal membrane on the presynaptic side of a synapse in a process called endocytosis. Amino acid neurotransmitter release (exocytosis) is dependent upon calcium Ca2+ and is a presynaptic response.
Some EAA are L-Glutamate, L-Aspartate, L-Cysteine, and L-Homocysteine. These neurotransmitter systems will activate post-synaptic cells. Some IAA include GABA, Glycine, β-Alanine, and Taurine. The IAA depress the activity of post-synaptic cells.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Amino acid non protein functions
- Excitatory amino-acid transporter also known as glutamate transporters,
- Excitatory amino acid agonist - a pharmacological agent which acts to increase the stimulation of receptors for excitatory amino acids ...
- Excitatory amino acid antagonist - a pharmacological agent which acts to decrease the stimulation of receptors for excitatory amino acids
- Excitatory amino-acid transporter 5
- Excitatory amino-acid transporter 4
- Glutamate aspartate transporter
- Glutamic acid
- Inhibitory amino acids
References[edit | edit source]
- Axon Terminal : on Medical Dictionary Online. URL accessed on 2008-12-25.
- (2007) Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry, David A. Williams, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- D'haenen, Hugo (2002). Biological Psychiatry (digitised online by Google books), Paul Willner, John Wiley and Sons. URL accessed 2008-12-26.
|Alanine | Arginine | Asparagine | Aspartic acid | Cysteine | Glutamic acid | Glutamine | Glycine | Histidine | Isoleucine | Leucine | Lysine | Methionine | Phenylalanine | Proline | Serine | Threonine | Tryptophan | Tyrosine | Valine|
|Essential amino acid | Protein | Peptide | Genetic code|
Cell physiology: cell signaling
|Types of proteins|