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Dystocia (antonym eutocia) is an abnormal or difficult childbirth or labour. Approximately a fifth of human labors have dystocia. Dystocia may arise due to incoordinate uterine activity, abnormal fetal lie or presentation, absolute or relative cephalopelvic disproportion, or (rarely) a massive fetal tumor such as a sacrococcygeal teratoma. Oxytocin is commonly used to treat incoordinate uterine activity. However, pregnancies complicated by dystocia often end with assisted deliveries including forceps, ventouse or, commonly, caesarean section. Recognized complications of dystocia include fetal death, respiratory depression, Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE), and brachial nerve damage. A prolonged interval between pregnancies, primigravid birth, and multiple birth have also been associated with increased risk for labor dystocia.
Shoulder dystocia is a dystocia in which the anterior shoulder of the infant cannot pass below the pubic symphysis, or requires significant manipulation to pass below the pubic symphysis.
A prolonged second stage of labour is another type of tocia[How to reference and link to summary or text] whereby the fetus has not been delivered within three hours after the mother's cervix has become fully dilated.
Synonyms: difficult labour, abnormal labour, difficult childbirth, abnormal childbirth, dysfunctional labour
The term can also be used in the context of various animals. Dystocia pertaining to birds and reptiles is also called egg binding. See egg bound.
- Zhu, BP, Grigorescu V, Le T, Lin M, Copeland G; Barone M; Turabelidze G (2006). Labor dystocia and its association with interpregnancy interval. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 85: 810–814.
Pathology of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (O, 630-676)
|Complications of pregnancy||
|Obstetric labor complications||
Preterm birth · Postmature birth · Cephalopelvic disproportion · Dystocia (Shoulder dystocia) · Fetal distress · Vasa praevia · Uterine rupture · Hemorrhage (Postpartum) · placenta (Placenta accreta) · Umbilical cord prolapse · Amniotic fluid embolism
Puerperal fever · Peripartum cardiomyopathy · Postpartum thyroiditis · Galactorrhea · Postpartum depression · Diastasis symphysis pubis
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