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- Main article: Psychodrama
Drama therapy (written dramatherapy in the UK) is a form of psychotherapy that seeks to facilitate physical integration and personal growth for individuals, couples, families, and various groups through the use of theatrical and dramatic processes. Drama therapists work in a wide variety of settings, including hospitals, schools, mental centers, prisons, and businesses.
In this form of therapy people are encouraged to express, and subsequently explore their feeling, inner conflicts through acting them out in front of observers,
History of Dramatherapy
The modern use of dramatic process and theatre as a therapeutic intervention began with Psychodrama. The field has expanded to allow many forms of theatrical interventions as therapy including role-play, theatre games, group-dynamic games, mime, puppetry, and other improvisational techniques. Often, "Drama Therapy" is utilized to help a client:
- Solve a problem
- Achieve a catharsis
- Delve into truths about self
- Understand the meaning of personally resonant images
- Explore and transcend unhealthy personal patterns of behavior and interpersonal interaction
The theoretical foundation of "Drama Therapy" lies in drama, theater, psychology, psychotherapy, anthropology, play, and interactive and creative processes.
In his book, "Drama as Therapy: Theory, practice and research," Phil Jones describes the emergence of the intentional use of drama as therapy as three-fold. First a long history of drama as a healing force with ancient roots in the healing rituals and dramas of various societies. The connection between drama and the psychological healing of society, though not of the individual, was first formally acknowledged by Aristotle, who was the originator of the term 'catharsis'. Secondly, in the early twentieth century, hospital theatre and the work of Moreno, Evreinov, and Iljine, marked a new attitude towards the relationship between therapy and theatre that provided a foundation for the emergence of drama therapy later in the century. Finally, influenced by experimental approaches to theatre, group dynamics, role playing and psychology in the 1960s, drama therapy emerged as a creative arts therapy in the 1970s.
Today, drama therapy is practiced around the world and there are presently academic training programs in Great Britain, Canada, the Netherlands, Israel and the United States.
Phil Jones has written in his book "Drama as Therapy, Theatre as Living" that there are 9 core processes at the heart of dramatherapy. These include projective identification and dramatic distancing. Projective identification is the process whereby a person feels the feelings that the other is unable to access themselves. Dramatic distancing refers to the way that emotional and psychological problems can be accessed easier through metaphor. The client has a distanced relationship through metaphor to these problems that makes them easier to tolerate.
Becoming a Drama Therapist
In the US, the governing body is the National Association for Drama Therapy (NADT), which establishes guidelines for the RDT (Registered Drama Therapist) accreditation.
In North America, Registered Drama Therapists hold a Masters degree from one of three institutions accredited by the National Association for Drama Therapy: New York University, the California Institute of Integral Studies, and Concordia University. Persons who hold a Masters degree in a related field can be registered as a Drama Therapist by pursuing what is known as Alternate Route Training, which consists of graduate coursework and internships performed under the supervision of a board-certified trainer.
In the UK, the governing body is the British Association of Dramatherapists (BADth).
There are currently five post-graduate training courses in Dramatherapy in the UK that lead to a qualification approved by the Health Professions Council, accredited by the British Association of Dramatherapists, and recognized by the Department of Health. These courses are offered at Roehampton University, University of Derby, Sesame, Anglia Ruskin University, and The School of Dramatherapy at the The Iron Mill Institute.
- Art Therapy
- Group psychotherapy
- Interpretation in psychotherapy
- Play therapy
- Playback Theatre
- Theater of the Oppressed
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