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This is a background article. See -Clinical psychology in dentistry
Dentistry, is a medical science, so more appropriately "dental medicine", is the art and science of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions, diseases, and disorders of the oral cavity, the maxillofacial region, and its associated structures as it relates to human beings. While the work of dentists is often surgical in nature, dentists can and do treat many diseases of the oral cavity and face chemotherapeutically (i.e. with prescribed medicines).
A dentist is a doctor, qualified to practice dentistry after graduating from dental education with a degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.) or Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.- which stands for "Dentariae Medicinae Doctorae" in Latin) in the US. In most countries, to become a qualified dentist you must usually complete at least 8 years of study; an undergraduate degree at the university level and 4 years doctoral training. At least 2 years practical experience working with patients in the educational setting during the last two years of doctoral training are required.
The first dental school, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, opened in Baltimore, Maryland in 1840. Harvard Dental School was the first dental school to affiliate with a university in 1867 (renamed Harvard School of Dental Medicine in 1940.)
General dentistry[edit | edit source]
General dentistry is the only non-speciality field of dentistry. General dentists typically do not focus their clinical practice on any particular discipline within dentistry, and instead provide basic care within a variety of disciplines. However, they can (and often do) further their training in one or more speciality areas (such as surgery, endodontics, orthodontics, etc.). Hence, there can be a great deal of variation between the level of skill in different disciplines from dentist to dentist, however all dentists must achieve a certain degree of skill in various disciplines in order to graduate from dental school and earn licensure. General practitioners, unlike specialists, have the luxury of choosing which services they will provide and which they will refer to specialists. It is important to note that most general practitioners perform restorative, prosthetic, routine endodontic therapy, routine periodontal therapy, and simple exodontia, as well as performing examinations. Others are comfortable treating more complex cases, as well as placing implants and extracting third molars...among many other procedures frequently referred to specialists. Contrary to popular belief, most dentists do not regularly clean teeth, and instead delegate this task to their support staff (e.g. dental hygienists).
The American Dental Association  recognizes the following specialities in dentistry; Prosthodontics, Orthodontics, Endodontics, Periodontics, Oral Surgery, Oral Radiology, Pediatric dentistry and Public Health Dentistry. There is no recognized speciality for Cosmetic Dentistry, however there are several groups that offer credentialing in cosmetic dentistry including the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry  (AACD) and the Academy of Comprehensive Esthetics  (ACE). To become credentialed, dentists from both of these organizations must attend several hundred hours of continuing dental education, pass a written examination and submit clinical cases for Board review.
Specialities[edit | edit source]
In addition to general dentistry, there are nine dental specialities recognized by the American Dental Association and require 2-6 years of residency training after dental school. The specialities are:
- Dental Public Health (study of dental epidemiology and social health policies),
- Endodontics (root canal therapy and study of diseases of the dental pulp),
- Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (study, diagnosis, and sometimes the treatment of oral and maxillofacial related diseases),
- Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (study and radiologic interpretation of oral and maxillofacial diseases),
- Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (extractions, facial surgery and implants),
- Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics (straightening of teeth and modification of midface and mandibular growth),
- Pediatric dentistry (i.e. dentistry for children),
- Periodontics (treatment of the periodontium, however most periodontists place implants),
- Prosthodontics (dentures, bridges and the restoration of implants. Some prosthodontists further their training in "oral and maxillofacial prosthodontics--a discipline concerned with the replacement of missing facial structures--such as ears, eyes, nose, etc.)
Specialists in these fields are designated registrable (U.S. "Board Eligible") and warrant exclusive titles such as orthodontist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, endodontist, pedodontist, periodontist, or prosthodontist upon satisfying certain local (U.S. "Board Certified") registry requirements.
Two other post-graduate formal advanced education programs: General Practice Residency (advanced clinical and didactic training with intense hospital experience) and Advanced Education in General Dentistry (advanced training in clinical dentistry) recognized by the ADA do not lead to specialization.
Special category: Oral Biology - Research in Dental and Craniofacial Biology
Other dental education exists where no post-graduate formal university training is required: cosmetic dentistry, dental implant, temporo-mandibular joint therapy. These usually require the attendance of one or more continuing education courses that typically last for one to several days. There are restrictions on allowing these dentists to call themselves specialists in these fields. The specialist titles are registrable titles and controlled by the local dental licensing bodies.
Forensic odontology consists of the gathering and use of dental evidence in law. This may be performed by any dentist with experience or training in this field. The function of the forensic dentist is primarily documentation and verification of identity.
Geriatric dentistry or geriodontics is the delivery of dental care to older adults involving the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of problems associated with normal ageing and age-related diseases as part of an interdisciplinary team with other health care professionals.
History[edit | edit source]
In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Ancient India made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, even from the early Harappan periods (c. 3300 BC), had knowledge of medicine and dentistry. The physical anthropologist that carried out the examinations, Professor Andrea Cucina from the University of Missouri-Columbia, made the discovery when he was cleaning the teeth from one of the men. Later research in the same area found evidence of teeth having been drilled, dating back 9,000 years. 
Some information contained in the Edwin Smith Papyrus dates as early as 3000 BC and includes the treatment of several dental ailments.  Hammurabi's Code contains some references to dental procedures and fees. The Ebers papyrus also discusses similar treatments. Examining the remains of some ancient Egyptians and Greco-Romans reveal early attempts at dental prosthetics and surgery.
Historically, dental extractions have been used to treat a variety of illnesses. During the Middle Ages and through the 19th century, dentistry was not a profession into itself, and often dental procedures were performed by barbers or general physicians. Barbers usually limited their practice to extracting teeth, which not only resulted in the alleviation of pain, but often cured a variety of ailments linked with chronic tooth infection. Instruments used for dental extractions date back several centuries. In the 14th century, Guy de Chauliac invented the dental pelican (resembling a pelican's beak) which was used through the late 18th century. The pelican was replaced by the dental key which, in turn, was replaced by modern forceps in the 20th century.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
It is said that the 17th century French physician Pierre Fauchard started dentistry science as we know it today, hence he was named "the father of modern dentistry". Among many of his developments were, the extensive use of dental prosthesis, introducing dental fillings as treatment for dental caries and stating that sugar derivate acids like tartaric acid were responsible for dental decay.
Dentistry throughout the world[edit | edit source]
In many countries, training in dentistry requires continuing education after high school and college. Degrees earned by dental graduates may give them the title, B.D.S (Bachelor of Dental Surgery), as is the case in Australia, Hong Kong, India, and the United Kingdom. Other countries, such as the United States and Sweden, may give D.D.S (Doctor of Dental Surgery) degrees. Licensure to practice and scope of permissible dental treatments are defined by various laws within a country. This includes the training required to practice specialized fields of dentistry.
Related dental topics[edit | edit source]
- Dental extraction
- Dental visit
- Fluoride therapy
- Dental implants
- Novocain, a Local anesthetic
- Oral hygiene
- Temporomandibular joint disease
- Dental phobia
References[edit | edit source]
- news.bbc.co.uk Stone age people in Pakistan were using dental drills made of flint 9,000 years ago. BBC News. Last Updated: Thursday, 6 April 2006
- Coppa, A. et al. 2006. "Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry: Flint tips were surprisingly effective for drilling tooth enamel in a prehistoric population." Nature. Volume 440. 6 April, 2006.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
Key texts[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
- Allen, K. D., & Stokes, T. F. (1989). Pediatric behavioral dentistry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Antoniou, A.-S. G., Komboli, D., Vrotsos, J., & Mantzavinos, Z. (2005). The role of psychosocial factors in the development of periodontal disease. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Croucher, R., Marcenes, W., & Pau, A. (2006). Community Health Promotion. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Gift, H. C., & White, B. A. (1997). Health behavior research and oral health. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
- Inglehart, M. R. (2006). Oral Health and Quality of Life. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Kent, G. (2001). Dental health. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers B V.
- Koerber, A. (2006). Health Behavior and Helping Patients Change. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Melamed, B. G., & Fogel, J. (2000). The psychologist's role in the treatment of dental problems. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
- Miltenberger, R. G., & Rapp, J. T. (2006). Behavior Management in Dentistry: Thumb Sucking. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Moretti, R. J., & Ayer, W. A. (1998). Dental-related problems and health psychology. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
- Moretti, R. J., & Ayer, W. A. (2004). Dental-related problems and health psychology. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
- Mostofsky, D. I., Forgione, A. G., & Giddon, D. B. (2006). Behavioral dentistry. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Niskanen, M. C., & Knuuttila, M. L. E. (2006). Health Behavior and Dental Care of Diabetics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing
- Numerous, C. (1992). Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and throat. St Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing.
- Riley, J. L., III. (2006). Behavioral Issues in Geriatric Dentistry. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Sterling, E. S., & Casamassimo, P. S. (1995). Pediatric dentistry. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
- Syrjala, A.-M. (2006). Self-Efficacy Perceptions in Oral Health Behavior. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Tepper, L. M., & Seidman, D. F. (1999). The role of the dental profession in tobacco cessation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Papers[edit | edit source]
Additional material[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
- White, L. W. (1997). A new paradigm of motivation. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Human Growth and Development.
Papers[edit | edit source]
- Adams, T. (1999). Dentistry and medical dominance: Social Science & Medicine Vol 48(3) Feb 1999, 407-420.
- Adams, T. L. (1998). Gender and women's employment in the male-dominated profession of dentistry: 1867-1917: Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology Vol 35(1) Feb 1998, 21-42.
- Adams, T. L. (2004). Inter-professional conflict and professionalization: Dentistry and dental hygiene in Ontario: Social Science & Medicine Vol 58(11) Jun 2004, 2243-2252.
- Al-Ansari, J. M., & Honkala, S. (2007). Gender differences in oral health knowledge and behavior of the health science college students in Kuwait: Journal of Allied Health Vol 36(1) Spr 2007, 41-46.
- Albino, J. E. N. (2002). A psychologist's guide to oral diseases and their treatment: Professional Psychology: Research and Practice Vol 33(2) Apr 2002, 176-182.
- Ashe, T. E., Elter, J. R., Southerland, J. H., Strauss, R. P., & Patton, L. L. (2006). North Carolina Dental Hygienists' Oral Cancer Knowledge and Opinions: Implications for Education: Journal of Cancer Education Vol 21(3) Fal 2006, 151-156.
- Astrom, A. N. (1996). Dimensionality of dental-health behavior: American Journal of Health Behavior Vol 20(3) May-Jun 1996, 67-76.
- Bigl, P., Hess, L., & Pavek, V. (1992). Our experience with midazolam and flumazenil in dentistry: Current Therapeutic Research Vol 51(1) Jan 1992, 92-96.
- Bolin, K., & Jones, D. (2006). Oral health needs of adolescents in a juvenile detention facility: Journal of Adolescent Health Vol 38(6) Jun 2006, 755-757.
- Boning, J. (1990). Psychosomatic and psychopathologic aspects of dentistry and orthodontics with special considerations of advanced age in patients: Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie Vol 23(6) Nov-Dec 1990, 318-321.
- Brennan, D. S., & Spencer, A. J. (2002). Factors influencing choice of dental treatment by private general practitioners: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 9(2) Jun 2002, 94-110.
- Cecchini, J. J., & Friedman, N. (1987). Comparison of junior and senior dental hygiene students' anxiety and dental stressors: International Journal of Psychosomatics Vol 34(1) 1987, 26-28.
- Charbonneau, A., Maheux, B., & Beland, F. (1999). Do people with HIV/AIDS disclose their HIV-positivity to dentists? : AIDS Care Vol 11(1) Feb 1999, 61-70.
- Chen, C. J.-A., & Jallaludin, R. L. R. (2000). Knowledge and perception of oral health promotion in schools among dental nurses in Sarawak, Malaysia: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health Vol 12(1) 2000, 12-16.
- Cohen, L. K. (1981). Dentistry and the behavioral/social sciences: An historical overview: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 4(3) Sep 1981, 247-256.
- Colon, P. G. (1974). The effects of heroin addiction on teeth: Journal of Psychedelic Drugs Vol 6(1) Jan 1974, 57-60.
- Coolidge, T., Heima, M., Coldwell, S. E., Weinstein, P., Logan, H. L., & Milgrom, P. (2005). Reliability and validity of the Revised Iowa Dental Control Index in a non-clinical sample: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 38(4) Mar 2005, 773-783.
- Cooper, C. L., Mallinger, M., & Kahn, R. L. (1980). Dentistry: What causes it to be a stressful occupation? : International Review of Applied Psychology Vol 29(3) Jul 1980, 307-319.
- Davis, J. E. C., & Sales, G. D. (1996). Dental and life science students: A comparison of approaches to study and course perceptions: Medical Education Vol 30(6) Nov 1996, 453-458.
- de Leo, D., Vallerini, A., & Magni, G. (1984). Eysenck Personality Inventory and choice of psychiatry as a career: Psychological Reports Vol 54(3) Jun 1984, 718.
- Demmel, H.-J. (1989). Psychotherapeutic possibilities in dental practice: Praxis der Psychotherapie und Psychosomatik Vol 34(4) Jul 1989, 214-219.
- Dolan, T. A. (1995). Research issues related to optimal oral health outcomes: Medical Care Vol 33(11, Suppl) Nov 1995, NS106-NS122.
- Eli, I., Baht, R., Kozlovsky, A., & Rosenberg, M. (1996). The complaint of oral malodor: Possible psychopathological aspects: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 58(2) Mar-Apr 1996, 156-159.
- Feinmann, C., & Harrison, S. (1997). Liaison psychiatry and psychology in dentistry: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 43(5) Nov 1997, 467-476.
- Fisher, M. A., Gilbert, G. H., & Shelton, B. J. (2005). Effectiveness of dental services in facilitating recovery from oral disadvantage: Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care & Rehabilitation Vol 14(1) Feb 2005, 197-206.
- Frame, P. S., Sawai, R., Bowen, W. H., & Meyerowitz, C. (2000). Preventive dentistry: Practitioner's recommendations for low-risk patients compared with scientific evidence and practice guidelines: American Journal of Preventive Medicine Vol 18(2) Feb 2000, 159-162.
- Fried, J. (1992). Oral health professions education: Working towards a tobacco-free society: Health Values: The Journal of Health Behavior, Education & Promotion Vol 16(1) Jan-Feb 1992, 48-51.
- Gallagher, E. B., & Moody, P. M. (1981). Dentists and the oral health behavior of patients: A sociological perspective: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 4(3) Sep 1981, 283-295.
- Gift, H. C., & Atchison, K. A. (1995). Oral health, health, and health-related quality of life: Medical Care Vol 33(11, Suppl) Nov 1995, NS57-NS77.
- Gilbert, G. H. (1995). Access to and patterns of use of oral health care among elderly veterans: Medical Care Vol 33(11, Suppl) Nov 1995, NS78-NS89.
- Godfrey, M. E. (1990). Diagnosis of intra-oral metal toxicity and management protocol: International Journal of Biosocial & Medical Research Vol 12(2) 1990, 155-171.
- Goodwin, W. C., & Erickson, M. T. (1973). Developmental problems and dental morphology: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 78(2) Sep 1973, 199-204.
- Hamby, C. L. (1982). Dental hygiene students: Stereotypically feminine: Psychological Reports Vol 50(3, Pt 2) Jun 1982, 1237-1238.
- Hamlet, S. L., & Stone, M. (1976). Compensatory vowel characteristics resulting from the presence of different types of experimental dental prostheses: Journal of Phonetics Vol 4(3) Jul 1976, 199-218.
- Haytac, M. C., Aslan, K., Ozcelik, O., & Bozdemir, H. (2008). Epileptic seizures triggered by the use of a powered toothbrush: Seizure Vol 17(3) Apr 2008, 288-291.
- Hebert, R. (2005). What's New in Nicotine & Tobacco Research? : Nicotine & Tobacco Research Vol 7(Suppl1) Spr 2005, S1-S3.
- Hernandez, M. A. C., Lopez, M. H., & Herrera, H. O. (2004). Concept organization of the tooth decay process constructed by first year dentistry students: Revista Intercontinental de Psicologia y Educacion Vol 6(2) 2004, 11-23.
- Hertert, R. S., & Cutright, D. E. (1977). Electroanesthesia for military application: Military Medicine Vol 142(12) Dec 1977, 929-931.
- Hocker, M. (1983). Dental aspects of preparation for a healthy old age: Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie Vol 16(2) Mar-Apr 1983, 53-57.
- Inglehart, M., & Tedesco, L. (1997). Increasing orthodontic patient cooperation in the 21st century: The role of cross-cultural communication issues. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Human Growth and Development.
- Jago, J. D. (1984). To protect the public: Professionalism vs competence in dentistry: Social Science & Medicine Vol 19(2) 1984, 117-122.
- Jones, E. E. (1973). Review of Psychology and Dentistry: Selected Readings: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 18 (12), Dec, 1973.
- Jones, G. V., Stacey, H., & Martin, M. (2002). Exploring the intensity paradox in emotional Stroop interference: Cognitive Therapy and Research Vol 26(6) Dec 2002, 831-839.
- Jones, J. A., Kressin, N. R., Spiro, A., III, Randall, C. W., Miller, D. R., Hayes, C., et al. (2001). Self-reported and clinical oral health in users of VA health care: Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Vol 56A(1) Jan 2001, M55-M62.
- Judd, P. L., & Kenny, D. J. (1990). Anatomic and physiologic aspects of disordered feeding: A dental perspective: Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation Vol 4(2) 1990, 85-96.
- Kamali, A. W., Nicholson, S., & Wooo, D. F. (2005). A model for widening access into medicine and dentistry: The SAMDA-BL project: Medical Education Vol 39(9) Sep 2005, 918-925.
- Khalil, T. M. (1974). Dentistry: A growing domain for ergonomics: Ergonomics Vol 17(1) Jan 1974, 75-86.
- Kleinknecht, R. A., Klepac, R. K., & Bernstein, D. A. (1976). Psychology and dentistry: Potential benefits from a health care liaison: Professional Psychology Vol 7(4) Nov 1976, 585-592.
- Knishkowy, B., & Sgan-Cohen, H. D. (2005). Oral health practices among adolescents: A study from family practice clinics in Israel: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health Vol 17(2) Apr-Jun 2005, 99-104.
- Krasner, L. (1976). Review of Psychological readings for the dental profession: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 21 (3), Mar, 1976.
- Kwan, S. Y. L., & Holmes, M. A. M. (1999). An exploration of oral health beliefs and attitudes of Chinese in West Yorkshire: A qualitative investigation: Health Education Research Vol 14(4) Aug 1999, 453-460.
- Lang, R. J., Gilpin, J. L., & Gilpin, A. R. (1990). Stress-related symptoms among dental hygienists: Psychological Reports Vol 66(3, Pt 1) Jun 1990, 715-722.
- Laszlo, M. (2006). An outline of the sociology of dentistry: Mentalhigiene es Pszichoszomatika Vol 6(4) 2006, 245-273.
- Lozer, A. C., & Enumo, S. R. F. (2007). Dental self-core in students with and without learning disability: Estudos de Psicologia Vol 24(4) Oct-Dec 2007, 421-429.
- Macentee, M. I., Hole, R., & Stolar, E. (1997). The significance of the mouth in old age: Social Science & Medicine Vol 45(9) Nov 1997, 1449-1458.
- Marcenes, W., & Sheiham, A. (1996). The relationship between marital quality and oral health status: Psychology & Health Vol 11(3) Apr 1996, 357-369.
- Marcenes, W. S., & Sheiham, A. (1992). The relationship between work stress and oral health status: Social Science & Medicine Vol 35(12) Dec 1992, 1511-1520.
- McAlister, A. L., & O'Shea, R. (1981). Community oral health promotion: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 4(3) Sep 1981, 337-347.
- McCaul, K. D., Glasgow, R. E., & O'Neill, H. K. (1992). The problem of creating habits: Establishing health-protective dental behaviors: Health Psychology Vol 11(2) 1992, 101-110.
- McGlynn, F. D., Gale, E. N., Glaros, A. G., LeResche, L., & et al. (1990). Biobehavioral research in dentistry: Some directions for the 1990s: Annals of Behavioral Medicine Vol 12(4) 1990, 133-140.
- Meinlschmidt, G., & Bolt, O. (2006). Behavioral medicine, psychotherapy and dentistry: Verhaltenstherapie Vol 16(2) Jun 2006, 122-132.
- Morse, D. R., & et al. (1982). The effect of stress and meditation on salivary protein and bacteria: A review and pilot study: Journal of Human Stress Vol 8(4) Dec 1982, 31-39.
- Mucci, L. A., & Brooks, D. R. (2001). Lower use of dental services among long term cigarette smokers: Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Vol 55(6) Jun 2001, 389-393.
- Nettleton, S. (1988). Protecting a vulnerable margin: Towards an analysis of how the mouth came to be separated from the body: Sociology of Health & Illness Vol 10(2) Jun 1988, 156-169.
- No authorship, i. (1989). Review of The Psychology of the Dentist-Patient Relationship: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 34 (5), May, 1989.
- Pearson, A. (2004). Oral health and older people: International Journal of Nursing Practice Vol 10(3) Jun 2004, 101.
- Peek, C. W., Gilbert, G. H., Duncan, R. P., Heft, M. W., & Henretta, J. C. (1999). Patterns of change in self-reported oral health among dentate adults: Medical Care Vol 37(12) Dec 1999, 1237-1248.
- Peres, M. A., Peres, K. G., Traebert, J., Zabot, N. E., & de Lacerda, J. T. (2005). Prevalence and severity of dental caries are associated with the worst socioeconomic conditions: A Brazilian cross-sectional study among 18-year-old males: Journal of Adolescent Health Vol 37(2) Aug 2005, 103-109.
- Powell, W., Hollis, C., de la Rosa, M., Helitzer, D. L., & Derksen, D. (2006). New Mexico Community Voices: Policy Reform to Reduce Oral Health Disparities: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved Vol 17(1,Suppl) Feb 2006, 95-110.
- Ramon, T., Grinshpoon, A., Zusman, S. P., & Weizman, A. (2003). Oral health and treatment needs of institutionalized chronic psychiatric patients in Israel: European Psychiatry Vol 18(3) May 2003, 101-105.
- Rao, A. P. (1983). Social work in dentistry: Health & Social Work Vol 8(3) Sum 1983, 219-229.
- Reich, S., Simon, J. F., Ruedinger, D., Shortall, A., Wichmann, M., & Frankenberger, R. (2007). Evaluation of two different teaching concepts in dentistry using computer technology: Advances in Health Sciences Education Vol 12(3) Aug 2007, 321-329.
- Schneider, V. G., & Leyendecker, S. S. (2005). Correlations between Psychosocial Factors and Periodontal Disease - A Systematic Review of the Literature: Zeitschrift fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie Vol 51(3) 2005, 277-296.
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- Schouten, B. C., Hoogstraten, J., & Eijkman, M. A. J. (2004). Dutch dentists' views of informed consent: A replication study: Patient Education and Counseling Vol 52(2) Feb 2004, 165-168.
- Sheiham, A., & Croog, S. H. (1981). The psychosocial impact of dental diseases on individuals and communities: Journal of Behavioral Medicine Vol 4(3) Sep 1981, 257-272.
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- Stein, M. I., Lifshutz, H., & Mauss, E. A. (1983). Factor analytic study of the Kurtzman Community Dental Health Ideology Scale: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 56(1) Feb 1983, 79-82.
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Dissertations[edit | edit source]
- Allen, E. M. (1982). A correlational study of the relationships between levels of burn-out and sociological-ecological factors in dental hygiene office practice: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Brondani, M. A. (2008). Sociodental indicators and a re(de)fined model for oral health in old age. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Carway, E. V. (1992). Toxic chemical syndrome: Body burden and immune parameters affected by environmental chemicals: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Chodzko, A. C. (1993). An analysis of parental behaviors in the acquisition and maintenance of toothbrushing skills in preschool children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Gaston, A. D. (1975). The effects of visual and auditory acuity losses and dental caries on academic achievement among disadvantaged third grade children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Jones, D. A. (1995). Depression in a sample of Canadian dentists. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Kalish, M. C. (1997). The reaction to dentistry among chronic schizophrenic individuals. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Katz, R. V. (1977). An epidemiologic study of the relationship between various states of occlusion, associated psychosocial factors and the pathological conditions of dental caries and periodontal disease: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Keffer, M. A. (1999). Mediation and moderation of the relationship between stress and periodontal disease. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Kraemer, L. G. (1987). Professional socialization of the dental hygienist as measured by professional attitudes and interpersonal values: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Mirochin, C. N. (1991). Attribution of responsibility for dental health care for the elderly: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Newell, K. J. (1987). Predictors of dental hygiene students' and practitioners' resolution of professional issues and position of intellectual development: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Peterson, F. L. (1982). An evaluation of the effects of the American Dental Association's Dental Health Education Program on the knowledge, attitudes, and health locus of control of high school students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Rosen, H. M. (1978). Capitation in dentistry: A quasi-experimental evaluation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Rouse, R. A. (1994). The dentist-patient relationship: A dyadic analysis of patients' intention to utilize dental services. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Smith, R. C. (1981). Perceptions of dentistry and dentists: A survey sample of selected students who are eighty-seven percent Black: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Terhune, J. A. (1973). The effect of age, sex and eye-hand coordination on the ability to predict the readiness of elementary students to learn an effective dental flossing technique: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
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