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Dental fear or dental anxiety refers to high of fear or anxiety associated with dentistry and dental care. A pathological form of this fear (specific phobia) is variously called dental phobia, odontophobia, dentophobia, dentist phobia. However, it has been suggested that the term "dental phobia" is often a misnomer, as many people with this condition do not feel their fears to be excessive or unreasonable and resemble individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder, caused by previous traumatic dental experiences. It is a somewhat academic question as to when ordinary levels of fear become a phobia.
- 1 Epidemiology
- 2 Dental fear in children
- 3 Cause
- 4 Assessment
- 5 Treatment
- 6 Assessment
- 7 Treatment
- 8 Dental hypnosis
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 Key texts
- 13 Additional material
Epidemiology[edit | edit source]
It is estimated that as many as 75% of US adults experience some degree of dental fear, from mild to severe. Approximately 5 to 10 percent of U.S. adults are considered to experience dental phobia; that is, they are so fearful of receiving dental treatment that they avoid dental care at all costs. Many dentally fearful people will only seek dental care when they have a dental emergency, such as a toothache or dental abscess. People who are very fearful of dental care often experience a “cycle of avoidance,” in which they avoid dental care due to fear until they experience a dental emergency requiring invasive treatment, which can reinforce their fear of dentistry.
Women tend to report more dental fear than men, and younger people tend to report being more dentally fearful than older individuals. People tend to report being more fearful of more invasive procedures, such as oral surgery, than they are of less invasive treatment, such as professional dental cleanings, or prophylaxis.
Dental fear in children[edit | edit source]
Cause[edit | edit source]
Direct experiences[edit | edit source]
Direct experience is the most common way people develop dental fears. Most people report that their dental fear began after a traumatic, difficult, and/or painful dental experience. However, painful or traumatic dental experiences alone do not explain why people develop dental phobia. The perceived manner of the dentist is an important variable. Dentists who were considered "impersonal", "uncaring", "uninterested" or "cold" were found to result in high dental fear in students, even in the absence of painful experiences, whereas some students who had had painful experiences failed to develop dental fear if they perceived their dentist as caring and warm.
Indirect experiences[edit | edit source]
(1) Vicarious learning: Dental fear may develop as people hear about others' traumatic experiences or negative views of dentistry (vicarious learning).
(2) Mass media: The negative portrayal of dentistry in mass media and cartoons may also contribute to the development of dental fear.
(3) Stimulus Generalization: Dental fear may develop as a result of a previous traumatic experience in a non-dental context. For example, bad experiences with doctors or hospital environments may lead people to fear white coats and antiseptic smells, which is one reason why dentists nowadays often choose to wear less "threatening" apparel. People who have been sexually, physically or emotionally abused may also find the dental situation threatening . The dental situation may be especially difficult for people who have experienced forced sexual intercourse which included oral penetration.
(4) Helplessness and Perceived Lack of Control: If a person believes that they have no means of influencing a negative event, they will experience helplessness (see Learned Helplessness). Research has shown that a perception of lack of control leads to fear. The opposite belief, that one does have control, can lead to lessened fear. For example, the belief that the dentist will stop when the patient gives a stop signal lessens fear. Helplessness and lack of control may also result from direct experiences, for example an incident where a dentist wouldn't stop even when the person was in obvious pain.
Assessment[edit | edit source]
Treatment[edit | edit source]
Treatments for dental fear often include a combination of behavioral and pharmacological techniques. Specialized dental fear clinics, use both psychologists and dentists to help people learn to manage and decrease their fear of dental treatment. The goal of these clinics is to provide individuals with the fear management skills necessary for them to receive regular dental care with a minimum of fear or anxiety. Although specialized clinics exist to help individuals manage and overcome their fear of dentistry, many dental providers outside of such clinics use similar behavioral and cognitive strategies to help patients reduce their fear.
Dental hypnosis has also been evaluted.
Assessment[edit | edit source]
Treatment[edit | edit source]
Treatments for dental fear often include a combination of behavioral and pharmacological techniques. Specialized dental fear clinics, such as those at the University of Washington in Seattle and Göteborg University in Sweden, use both psychologists and dentists to help people learn to manage and decrease their fear of dental treatment. The goal of these clinics is to provide individuals with the fear management skills necessary for them to receive regular dental care with a minimum of fear or anxiety. While specialized clinics exist to help individuals manage and overcome their fear of dentistry, they are rare. Many dental providers outside of such clinics use similar behavioral and cognitive strategies to help patients reduce their fear.
Behavioral Techniques[edit | edit source]
Behavioral strategies used by dentists include positive reinforcement (e.g. praising the patient), the use of non-threatening language, and tell-show-do techniques. The tell-show-do technique was originally developed for use in pediatric dentistry, but can also be used with nervous adult patients. The technique involves verbal explanations of procedures in easy-to-understand language (tell), followed by demonstrations of the sights, sounds, smells, and tactile aspects of the procedure in a non-threatening way (show), followed by the actual procedure (do).
More specialized behavioral treatments include teaching individuals relaxation techniques, such as diaphragmatic breathing and progressive muscle relaxation, as well as cognitive, or thought-based techniques, such as cognitive restructuring and guided imagery. Both relaxation and cognitive strategies have been shown to significantly reduce dental fear. One example of a behavioral technique is systematic desensitization, a method used in psychology to overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders. This is also sometimes called graduated exposure therapy or gradual exposure. For example, for a patient who is fearful of dental injections, the therapist first teaches relaxation skills to the patient, then gradually introduces the feared object (in this case, the needle and/or syringe) to the patient, encouraging the patient to manage his/her fear using the relaxation skills previously taught. The patient progresses through the steps of receiving a dental injection while using the relaxation skills, until the patient is able to successfully receive a dental injection while experiencing little to no fear. This method has been shown to be effective in treating fear of dental injections. Cognitive restructuring , if applied in a non-threatening situation, might be an useful alternative as a first step after years of avoidance of dental care and less threatening than immediate exposure to the feared stimuli.
It is interesting to take into account the views of people who have been provided with behavioural treatments for dental fear. From a psychologist's perspective, techniques such as graded exposure, relaxation techniques or challenging catastrophic thinking are important. However, Gerry Kent, a clinical psychologist from the University of Sheffield UK, notes that from the patient's perspective, interventions can be conceptualized quite differently. He argues that high levels of anxiety or phobia should not be considered as residing simply within the individual or in the individual's perceptions of dental care, but more within the relationship with the dentist. For example, when patients who had successfully completed a cognitive-behavioural programme were asked what had helped them to tolerate treatment, they mentioned factors such as the provision of information, the time taken, being put in control by the dentist, and the dentist understanding and listening to their concerns. Such findings suggest that an interpersonal model of anxiety and anxiety-reduction is useful when trying to understand and treat dental fears.
Certain aspects of the physical environment also play an important role in alleviating dental fear. For example, getting rid of the smells traditionally associated with dentistry, the dental team wearing non-clinical clothes, or playing music in the background can all help patients by removing and replacing stimuli which can trigger feelings of fear (see classical conditioning). Some anxious patients respond well to more obvious distraction techniques such as listening to music, watching movies, or even using virtual-reality headsets during treatment. 
Dental hypnosis[edit | edit source]
Dental hypnosis has also been evaluated.
Pharmacological Techniques[edit | edit source]
Pharmacological techniques to manage dental fear range from mild sedation to general anesthesia, and are often used by dentists in conjunction with behavioral techniques. One common anxiety-reducing medication used in dentistry is nitrous oxide (also known as “laughing gas”), which is inhaled through a mask worn on the nose and causes feelings of relaxation and dissociation. Dentists may prescribe an oral sedative, such as a benzodiazepine like temazepam (Restoril), alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), or triazolam (Halcion). Triazolam (Halcion) is not available in the UK. While these sedatives may help people feel calmer and sometimes drowsy during dental treatment, patients are still conscious and able to communicate with the dental staff. Intravenous sedation uses benzodiazepines administered directly intravenously into a patient’s arm or hand. IV sedation is often referred to as “conscious sedation” as opposed to general anesthesia (GA). In IV sedation, patients breathe on their own while their breathing and heart rate are monitored. In GA, patients are more deeply sedated.
Self-Help and Peer Support[edit | edit source]
Recent research has focused on the role of online communities in helping people to confront their anxiety or phobia and successfully receive dental care. The findings suggest that certain individuals do appear to benefit from their involvement in dental anxiety online support groups. 
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
Further reading[edit | edit source]
Key texts[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
- Botto, R. W. (2006). Chairside Techniques for Reducing Dental Fear. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Chapman, H. R., & Kirby-Turner, N. C. (2005). The Treatment of Dental Fear in Children and Adolescents - A Cognitive-Behavioural Approach to the Development of Coping Skills and their Clinical Application. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
- Fabian, G., Muller, O., Kovacs, S., Nguyen, M. T., Fabian, T. K., Csermely, P., et al. (2007). Attitude toward death: Does it influence dental fear? Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Papers[edit | edit source]
- Aartman, I. H. A., van Everdingen, T., Hoogstraten, J., & Schuurs, A. H. B. (1996). Appraisal of behavioral measurement techniques for assessing dental anxiety and fear in children: A review: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment Vol 18(2) Jun 1996, 153-171.
- Abrahamsson, K. H., Berggren, U., Hallberg, L. R. M., & Carlsson, S. G. (2002). Ambivalence in coping with dental fear and avoidance: A qualitative study: Journal of Health Psychology Vol 7(6) Nov 2002, 653-664.
- Ahmad, T. E. F., & Rajab, L. D. (2002). Dental fears among the students of the University of Jordan: Arab Journal of Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Nov 2002, 92-102.
- Arntz, A., Van Eck, M., & Heijmans, M. (1990). Predictions of dental pain: The fear of any expected evil is worse than the evil itself: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 28(1) 1990, 29-41.
- Berge, M. T., Veerkamp, J. S. J., & Hoogstraten, J. (2002). The etiology of childhood dental fear: The role of dental and conditioning experiences: Journal of Anxiety Disorders Vol 16(3) 2002, 321-329.
- Berggren, U. (1992). General and specific fears in referred and self-referred adult patients with extreme dental anxiety: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 30(4) Jul 1992, 395-401.
- Berggren, U. (1993). Psychosocial effects associated with dental fear in adult dental patients with avoidance behaviours: Psychology & Health Vol 8(2-3) Apr 1993, 185-196.
- Berggren, U., & Carlsson, S. G. (1984). A psychophysiological therapy for dental fear: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 22(5) 1984, 487-492.
- Bernstein, D. A., & Kleinknecht, R. A. (1982). Multiple approaches to the reduction of dental fear: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 13(4) Dec 1982, 287-292.
- Brandon, R. K., & Kleinknecht, R. A. (1982). Fear assessment in a dental analogue setting: Journal of Behavioral Assessment Vol 4(4) Dec 1982, 317-325.
- Chertock, S. L., & Bornstein, P. H. (1979). Covert modeling treatment of children's dental fears: Child Behavior Therapy Vol 1(3) Fal 1979, 249-255.
- Coldwell, S. E., Getz, T., Milgrom, P., Prall, C. W., Spadafora, A., & Ramsay, D. S. (1998). CARL: A LabView 3 computer program for conducting exposure therapy for the treatment of dental injection fear: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 36(4) Apr 1998, 429-441.
- Davey, G. C. (1989). Dental phobias and anxieties: Evidence for conditioning processes in the acquisition and modulation of a learned fear: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 27(1) 1989, 51-58.
- de' Fornari, M. A. C., Rusconi, A. C., Passarelli, P., & Bollea, E. (2004). Monitoring of anxiety, fear and phobia in the dental experience of the child: Minerva Psichiatrica Vol 45(1) Mar 2004, 29-35.
- de Moraes, A. B. A., Ambrosano, G. M. B., de Fatima Possobon, R., & Costa, A. L., Jr. (2004). Fear Assessment in Brazilian Children: The Relevance of Dental Fear: Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa Vol 20(3) Sep-Dec 2004, 289-294.
- Early, C. E., & Kleinknecht, R. A. (1978). The Palmar Sweat Index as a function of repression-sensitization and fear of dentistry: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 46(1) Feb 1978, 184-185.
- Eijkman, M. (2007). A fearful patient's journey for dental help: Patient Education and Counseling Vol 66(3) Jun 2007, 259-260.
- Fang-Zhong, X., & Mi, Z. (2006). The Establishment of the Chinese Version of the Dental Hygiene Fear Survey: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 20(5) May 2006, 317-325.
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- Gauthier, J., Savard, F., Halle, J.-P., & Dufour, L. (1984). Flooding and coping skills training for modifying the fear of dental care: Revue de Modification du Comportement Vol 14(2) 1984, 77-88.
- Gauthier, J., Savard, F., Halle, J.-P., & Dufour, L. (1985). Flooding and coping skills training in the management of dental fear: Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy Vol 14(1) 1985, 3-15.
- Ginther, L. J., & Roberts, M. C. (1982). A test of mastery versus coping modeling in the reduction of children's dental fears: Child & Family Behavior Therapy Vol 4(4) Win 1982, 41-52.
- Halvorsen, B., & Willumsen, T. (2004). Willingness to pay for dental fear treatment: Is supplying dental fear treatment socially beneficial? : The European Journal of Health Economics Vol 5(4) Nov 2004, 299-308.
- Harrison, J. A., Berggren, U., & Carlsson, S. G. (1989). Treatment of dental fear: Systematic desensitization or coping? : Behavioural Psychotherapy Vol 17(2) Apr 1989, 125-133.
- Harrison, J. A., & Carlsson, S. G. (1984). Methodological issues in process and outcome studies: Psychophysiology, systematic desensitization, and dental fear: Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy Vol 13(2) 1984, 97-116.
- Harrison, J. A., Carlsson, S. G., & Berggren, U. (1985). Research in clinical process and outcome methodology: Psychophysiology, systematic desensitization and dental fear: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 16(3) Sep 1985, 201-209.
- Haukebo, K., Skaret, E., Ost, L.-G., Raadal, M., Berg, E., Sundberg, H., et al. (2008). One- vs. five-session treatment of dental phobia: A randomized controlled study: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 39(3) Sep 2008, 381-390.
- Hermecz, D. A., & Melamed, B. G. (1984). The assessment of emotional imagery training in fearful children: Behavior Therapy Vol 15(2) Mar 1984, 156-172.
- Johnson, B., Mayberry, W. E., & McGlynn, F. D. (1990). Exploratory factor analysis of a sixty-item questionnaire concerned with fear of dental treatment: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 21(3) Sep 1990, 199-203.
- Kammerer, E., Schafer, S., & Mack, B. (1981). Group behavior therapy for children with a strong fear of dentists: Zeitschrift fur Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie Vol 9(3) 1981, 253-272.
- Karila, I. (1987). Treatment of dental fears among children: Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy Vol 16(1) 1987, 31-36.
- Kaufman, E., Bauman, A., Lichtenstein, T., Garfunkel, A. A., & et al. (1991). Comparison between the psychopathological profile of dental anxiety patients and an average dental population: International Journal of Psychosomatics Vol 38(1-4), Spec Issue 1991, 52-57.
- Kleinknecht, R. A., & Bernstein, D. A. (1978). The assessment of dental fear: Behavior Therapy Vol 9(4) Sep 1978, 626-634.
- Klepac, R. K. (1986). Fear and avoidance of dental treatment in adults: Annals of Behavioral Medicine Vol 8(4) 1986, 17-22.
- Kroeger, R. F. (1986). Management of dental phobia: The use of fear-screening questionnaires: International Journal of Psychosomatics Vol 33(1) 1986, 92-95.
- Krueger, T. H. C., Haake, P., Heller, H.-W., Exton, M. S., Hauffa, B. P., & Schedlowski, M. (2005). The Dental Anxiety Scale and Effects of Dental Fear on Salivary Cortisol: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 100(1) Feb 2005, 109-117.
- Landau, D. L., McGlynn, F. D., Gaskins, L. E., & Bichajian, C. (1984). Demand effects for desensitization and two placebos in a dental fear context: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 15(2) Jun 1984, 115-121.
- Lindsay, S. J., & Jackson, C. (1993). Fear of routine dental treatment in adults: Its nature and management: Psychology & Health Vol 8(2-3) Apr 1993, 135-153.
- Lindsay, S. J., Wege, P., & Yates, J. (1984). Expectations of sensations, discomfort and fear in dental treatment: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 22(2) 1984, 99-108.
- Lindsay, S. J., & Woolgrove, J. (1982). Fear and pain in dentistry: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society Vol 35 Jun 1982, 225-228.
- Litt, M. D. (1996). A model of pain and anxiety associated with acute stressors: Distress in dental procedures: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 34(5-6) May-Jun 1996, 459-476.
- Locker, D., Liddell, A., & Shapiro, D. (1999). Diagnostic categories of dental anxiety: A population-based study: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 37(1) Jan 1999, 25-37.
- Locker, D., Shapiro, D., & Liddell, A. (1997). Overlap between dental anxiety and blood-injury fears: Psychological characteristics and response to dental treatment: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 35(7) Jul 1997, 583-590.
- Locker, D., Shapiro, D., & Liddell, A. (1999). Variations in negative cognitions concerning dental treatment among dentally anxious and nonanxious individuals: Cognitive Therapy and Research Vol 23(1) Feb 1999, 93-103.
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- Lundgren, J., Berggren, U., & Carlsson, S. G. (2004). Psychophysiological reactions in dental phobic patients with direct vs. indirect fear acquisition: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 35(1) Mar 2004, 3-12.
- Lundgren, J., Carlsson, S. G., & Berggren, U. (2006). Relaxation versus cognitive therapies for dental fear--A psychophysiological approach: Health Psychology Vol 25(3) May 2006, 267-273.
- Mathews, A., & Rezin, V. (1977). Treatment of dental fears by imaginal flooding and rehearsal of coping behaviour: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 15(4) 1977, 321-328.
- McGlynn, F. D., McNeil, D. W., Gallagher, S. L., & Vrana, S. (1987). Factor structure, stability, and internal consistency of the Dental Fear Survey: Behavioral Assessment Vol 9(1) Win 1987, 57-66.
- McNeil, D. W., & Berryman, M. L. (1989). Components of dental fear in adults?: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 27(3) 1989, 233-236.
- Mehrstedt, M., Tonnies, S., & Eisentraut, I. (2002). Dental Fears, Health Status and Quality of Life: Verhaltenstherapie & Verhaltensmedizin Vol 23(3) 2002, 329-340.
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- Milgrom, P., Jie, Z., Yang, Z., & Tay, K. M. (1994). Cross-cultural validity of a parent's verson of the Dental Fear Survey Schedule for children in Chinese: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 32(1) Jan 1994, 131-135.
- Milgrom, P., Kleinknecht, R. A., Elliott, J., Hsing, L. H., & et al. (1990). A cross-cultural cross validation of the Dental Fear Survey in South East Asia: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 28(3) 1990, 227-233.
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- Miller, M. P., Murphy, P. J., & Miller, T. P. (1978). Comparison of electromyographic feedback and progressive relaxation training in treating circumscribed anxiety stress reactions: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 46(6) Dec 1978, 1291-1298.
- Moore, R., Brodsgaard, I., Berggren, U., & Carlsson, S. G. (1991). Generalization of effects of dental fear treatment in a self-referred population of odontophobics: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 22(4) Dec 1991, 243-253.
- Moore, R., Brodsgaard, I., & Birn, H. (1991). Manifestations, acquisition and diagnostic categories of dental fear in a self-referred population: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 29(1) 1991, 51-60.
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- Muris, P., Jongh, A. D., Merckelbach, H., Postema, S., & Vet, M. (1998). Thought suppression in phobic and non-phobic dental patients: Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal Vol 11(4) 1998, 275-287.
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Additional material[edit | edit source]
Books[edit | edit source]
- Freeman, R. (1994). A psychotherapeutic approach to the understanding and treatment of a psychosomatic disorder: The case of burning mouth syndrome. London, England: Karnac Books.
- McGlynn, F. D., & Vopat, T. (1994). Simple phobia. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Papers[edit | edit source]
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|
- Bracha, Vega and Vega (2006). Posttraumatic Dental-Care Anxiety: Is "dental phobia" a misnomer? Hawaii Dental Journal, Sept/Oct 2006, pp. 17-19 
- Kleinknecht RA, Thorndike RM, McGlynn FD, Harkavy J (Jan 1984). Factor analysis of the dental fear survey with cross-validation. J Am Dent Assoc 108 (1): 59–61.
- Getka EJ, Glass CR (Summer 1992). Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches to the reduction of dental anxiety. Behavior Therapy 23 (3): 433–48.
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