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Demographic economics or population economics is the application of economics to demography, the study of human populations, including size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics.[1]

Analysis includes economic determinants and consequences of:

Other subfields include the measuring the Value of life[14] and the economics of the elderly[15] and the handicapped[16] and of gender,[17] race, minorities, and non-labor discrimination.[18] In coverage and subfields, it complements labor economics[19] and implicates a variety of other economics subjects.[20]

See also[]


  • Demographic-economic paradox
  • Demographic dividend
  • Demographic transition
  • Demographic gift
  • Demographic window
  • Demographic trap
  • Preston curve
  • Development economics


  1. • Allen C. Kelley and Robert M. Schmidt, 2008. "economic demography," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
       • Bernard van Praag, 1988. "The Notion of Population Economics," Journal of Population Economics, 1(1), pp. 5-16. Abstract.
  2. • Mark Montgomery and James Trussell, 1986. "Models of Marital Status and Childbearing," Handbook of Labor Economics, v. 1, , pp. 205-71F. Elsevier.
       • T. Paul Schultz, 2008. "fertility in developing countries," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • Alicia Adsera, 2008. "fertility in developed countries," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • Oded Galor., 2005. "The Demographic Transition and the Emergence of Sustained Economic Growth." Journal of the European Economic Association, 3, 494-504. Abstract and draft PDF (press +).
       • Eric A Hanushek, 1992. "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality," Journal of Political Economy, 100(1), pp. 84-117.
       • Evelyn L. Lehrer, 1996. "Religion as a Determinant of Marital Fertility," Journal of Population Economics 9(2), pp. 173-196.
  3. Gary S. Becker, 1987. "family," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 2, pp. 281-86. Reprinted in, 1989), Social Economics: The New Palgrave, pp. 65-76.
       • _____, 1981, Enlarged ed., 1991. A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-90698-5. Publisher's description & links to chapter previews.
       • _____, 1988. "Family Economics and Macro Behavior," American Economic Review, 78(1) , pp. 1-13.
       • John Ermisch, 2008. "family economics," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract
       • _____, 2003. An Economic Analysis of the Family, Princeton. Description, Chapter 1 "Introduction" (press +), chapter-preview links.
       • Evelyn Lehrer, 2007. Religion, Economics and Demography: The Effects of Religion on Education, Work, and the Family, Routledge. 978-0-415-70194-5 Description.
       • _____, 2004. “Religion as a Determinant of Economic and Demographic Behavior in the United States,” Population and Development Review, 30(4), pp. 707-26.Pre-publication copy.
  4. • Yoram Weiss, 2008. "marriage and divorce," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • Evelyn L. Lehrer and Carmel U. Chiswick, 1993. "Religion as a Determinant of Marital Stability," Demography, 30(3), pp. 385-404.
  5. David Canning and David E. Bloom, 2008. "population health, economic implications of," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
  6. • James W. Vaupel, Kristín G. von Kistowski, and Roland Rau, 2008. "mortality," The New Palgrave Dictionary, Abstract.
       • Samuel H. Preston, 1975. "The Changing Relation between Mortality and Level of Economic Development," Population Studies, 29(2), pp. 231-248 (press Rotate button, 2 to right of Select button).
       • David E. Bloom and David Canning, 2007. "Commentary: The Preston Curve 30 Years on: Still Sparking Fires," International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(3), pp. 498–499. link.
  7. • Allen C. Kelley and Robert M. Schmidt, 1996. "Saving, Dependency and Development," Journal of Population Economics, 9(4), pp. 365-86. Abstract.
       • David N. Weil, 1999. "Population Growth, Dependency, and Consumption," American Economic Review, 89(2), pp. 251-255.
       • Frank T. Denton and Byron G. Spencer, 2000. "Population Aging and Its Economic Costs: A Survey of the Issues and Evidence," Canadian Journal on Aging, 19(Suppl. 1) pp. 1-31. Abstract.
  8. • Yannis M. Ioannides and Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2009. "urban growth," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • James R. Walker, 2008. "internal migration," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • George J. Borjas, 2008. "international migration," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
  9. • Ronald D. Lee, 2008. "population dynamics," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • Oded Galor, 2008. "human capital, fertility and growth," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • _____ and David N. Weil, 2000. "Population, Technology, and Growth: From the Malthusian Regime to the Demographic Transition and Beyond," American Economic Review, 90(4), pp. 806-828 (close Bookmarks tab).
       • D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee, ed., 1987. Population Growth and Economic Development: Issues and Evidence. University of Wisconsin Press, Description. Input for NRC, 1986.
       • Allen C. Kelley, 1988. "Economic Consequences of Population Change in the Third World," Journal of Economic Literature, 26(4), pp. 1685-1728..
       • James A. Brander1 and Steve Dowrick, 1994. "The Role of Fertility and Population in Economic Growth," Journal of Population Economics, 7(1), pp. 1-25. Abstract.
       • Michael Kremer, 1993. "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(3), pp. 681-716.
       • Partha Dasgupta, 1995. "The Population Problem: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Economic Literature, 33(4), pp. 1879-1902..
  10. * Joel E. Cohen, 1985. How Many People Can the Earth Support? Norton. Description& chapter-preview links, pp. vii-x.
       • _____, 1995. "Population Growth and Earth's Human Carrying Capacity," Science, 269(5222), pp. 341-346.
  11. National Research Council, 1986. Population Growth and Economic Development: Policy Questions. National Academies Press. Links to each chapter.
       • Theodore W. Schultz, 1981. Investing in People: The Economics of Population Quality, University of California Press. Description and chapter-preview links.
       • Amartya Sen, 1995. "Authoritarianism versus Cooperation," pp. pp. 3-29. International Lecture Series on Population Issues, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, also in 1997, Journal of Population Economics, 10(1), pp. 3-22.
       • Janet Currie, 2008. "child health and mortality," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • Nancy Birdsall, Allen C. Kelley, Steven W. Sinding, 2001. Population Matters: Demographic Change, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Developing World. Oxford. Description & chapter-preview links, pp. xi-xii.
       • Paul A. Samuelson, 1958. "An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money," Journal of Political Economy, 66(6), pp. 467-82.
       • Jagadeesh Gokhale , 2008. "generational accounting," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
  12. • Shripad Tuljapurkar, 2008. "stable population theory" The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
  13. • Jeremy Greenwood, Ananth Seshadri, and Vandenbroucke, 2005. "The Baby Boom and Baby Bust," American Economic Review, 95(1), , pp. 183-207.Abstract.
       • Carl Mosk, 2008) "historical demography," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • Ronald D. Lee, 2008. "demographic transition," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
  14. • W. Kip Viscusi, 2008. "value of life," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • Gary S. Becker, Tomas J. Philipson, and Rodrigo R. Soares, 2005. “The Quantity and Quality of Life and the Evolution of World Inequality,” American Economic Review, 95{1), pp. 277-291 (close Bookmarks tab & press +).
  15. • Michael Hurd, 2008. "retirement,' The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • David N. Weil, 2008. "population ageing," The New Palgrave Dictionary, Abstract.
       • Robert L. Clark and Joseph J. Spengler, 1998. The Economics of Individual and Population Aging. Description and scroll to chapter-preview links.
  16. • Didier Blanchet and Marc Fleurbaey, 2006. "Selfishness, Altruism and Normative Principles in the Economic Analysis of Social Transfers," Ch. 24, in Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism, v. 2, pp. 1465-1503. Abstract.
       • Sally Tomlinson, 1985. "The Expansion of Special Education," Oxford Review of Education, 11(2), pp. 157-165.
       • Margaret M. Bubolz and Alice P. Whiren, 1984. "The Family of the Handicapped: An Ecological Model for Policy and Practice," Family Relations, 33(1) [The Family with Handicapped Members], pp. 5-12.
  17. • Oded Galor and David N. Weil, 1996. "The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth,” American Economic Review, 86, 374-387.
       • Joyce P. Jacobsen, 2008. "gender roles and division of labour," The New Palgrave Dictionary. Abstract.
       • Joyce P. Jacobsen, 1998. Economics of Gender. Blackwell. Description & chapter previews.
  18. Thomas Sowell, 1975. Race and Economics, McKay.
       • _____, 1995. Race and Culture: A World View. Basic Books. Description & chapter previews.
  19. JEL classification codes#Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories.
       • Labor and Demographic Economics: Demographic Economics, NBER Working Paper abstract links from the National Bureau of Economic Research.
  20. • Assaf Razin and Efraim Sadka, 1996. Population Economics. MIT Press. Description & chapter previews.
       • Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark, ed., 1997. Handbook of Population and Family Economics. lst-page ch. links, v. 1A & v. 1B, pp. 1422. Elsevier. Description, v. 1A preview, and ch. 1 link.
       • Search of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online, "population OR demography".


  • John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman, ed. ([1987] 1989. Social Economics: The New Palgrave, pp. v-vi. Arrow-page searchable links to entries for:
"Ageing Populations," pp. 1-3, by Robert L. Clark
"Declining Population," pp. 10-15, by Robin Barlow
"Demographic Transition," pp. 16-23, by Ansley J. Coale
"Extended Family," pp. 58-63, by Oliva Harris
"Family," pp. 65-76, by Gary S. Becker
"Fertility," pp. 77-89, by Richard A. Easterlin
"Gender," pp. 95-108, by Francine D. Blau
"Race and Economics," pp. 215-218, by H. Stanback
"Value of Life," pp. 289-76, by Thomas C. Schelling
  • Nathan Keyfitz, 1987. "demography," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 1, pp. 796–802.
  • T. Paul Schultz, 1981. Economics of Population. Addison-Wesley. Abstract.
  • John B. Shoven, ed., 2011. Demography and the Economy, University of Chicago Press. Scroll-down description and


  • Julian L. Simon, 1977. The Economics of Population Growth. Princeton,
  • _____, [1981] 1996. The Ultimate Resource 2, rev. and expanded. Princeton. Description.
    • Dennis A. Ahlburg, 1998. "Julian Simon and the Population Growth Debate," Population and Development Review, 24(2), pp. 317-327 (press +).
  • Julian L. Simon, ed., 1997. The Economics Of Population: Key Modern Writings. Description.
  • _____, ed., 1998. The Economics of Population: Classic Writings. Description and scroll to chapter-preview links.
  • Joseph J. Spengler 1951. "The Population Obstacle to Economic Betterment," American Economic Review, 41(2), pp. 343-354.
  • _____, 1966. "The Economist and the Population Question," American Economic Review, 56(1/2), pp. 1–24.


External links[]

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