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Personality: Self concept · Personality testing · Theories · Mind-body problem

Term created by Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828), a German neuroanatomist and physiologist who was a pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain, to name his technique to infer brain localization of function on the basis of the external anatomy of the skull or cranium.

Cranioscopy is the basis of phrenology, but was later proved to be unscientific.