Psychology Wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Philosophy Index: Aesthetics · Epistemology · Ethics · Logic · Metaphysics · Consciousness · Philosophy of Language · Philosophy of Mind · Philosophy of Science · Social and Political philosophy · Philosophies · Philosophers · List of lists

Contractualism is a term which refers to a political position.


Main article: Social Contract

Moral theories based on social contract theory, are also known as contractarianism, which argue that what people ought to do is determined by contracts or agreements reached between those people.[1]

Modern critiques[]

T. M. Scanlon is a proponent of the standpoint as developed in the 1998 publication What We Owe to Each Other. Earlier on J. Rawls wrote on the idea in the work A Theory of Justice published 1971.[2][3]

According to some, the creation of welfare contractualism, represented coincidentally the choice away from the social citizenship credited to T.H. Marshall as proposed in the work Citizenship and Social class published 1950. The idea in any case is inherently to have propose the issuing of money to citizens only on the condition of the individual having fulfilled criteria such as the pre-agreed effort to find or maintain employment of energies as work focused. [4][5]


  1. Podgorski, Daniel. "Common Phenomena: A Brief Introduction to Moral Anti-realist Contractarian Ethics". The Gemsbok. 16 January 2016.
  2. Matravers, M. Scanlon and Contractualism, Psychology Press, 5 Mar 2004. URL accessed 2012-06-06.
  3. Rawls, J. A Theory of Justice, Harvard University Press, 1971. URL accessed 2012-06-06.
  4. White, S. B.J.Pol.S.507-532 30. Cambridge University Press, 2000. URL accessed on 2012-06-06.
  5. Marshall, Thomas Humphrey. Citizenship and social class: and other essays University Press, 1950

See also[]

  • Ashford, Elizabeth and Mulgan, Tim. 2007. 'Contractualism'. In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (accessed October 2007).
  • Cudd, Ann. 2007. 'Contractarianism'. In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (Summer 2007 Edition).
  • Matravers, M. 2003. Scanlon and contractualism. Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass.
  • Reibetanz, S. 1988. 'Contractualism and Aggregation'. Ethics, 108 (2): 296-311.
  • Scanlon, T. M. 1998. What We Owe to Each Other. Cambridge, Mass.
  • Wallace, R. Jay. 2002. 'Scanlon's Contractualism'. Ethics, 112 (3): 429-470.

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).