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Computer assisted design or Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD) is the use of computer technology to aid in the design of a product. Current software packages range from 2D vector base drafting systems to 3D solid and surface modellers.
Origins and terminology[edit | edit source]
CAD originally meant Computer-Aided Drafting or designing because of its original use as a replacement for traditional drafting. Now, CAD usually means Computer Aided Design to reflect the fact that modern CAD tools do more than just drafting. CAD is sometimes translated as "computer-assisted", "computer-aided drafting", or a similar phrase. Related acronyms are CADD, which stands for "computer-aided design and drafting", CAID for computer-aided industrial design and CAAD, for "computer-aided architectural design". All of these terms are essentially synonymous, but there are a few subtle differences in meaning and application.
CAM (Computer-aided manufacturing) is also often used in a similar way, or as a combination (CAD/CAM). The term CAD is generally used for graphical design, whereas non-graphical computer-aided design, though there may be a focus on shape and shape-related functions, is usually called Knowledge-based engineering (KBE).
Introduction[edit | edit source]
CAD is used to design, develop and optimize products, which can be goods used by end consumers or intermediate goods used in other products. CAD is also extensively used in the design of tools and machinery used in the manufacture of components, and in the drafting and design of all types of buildings, from small residential types (houses) to the largest commercial and industrial structures (hospitals and factories).
CAD is mainly used for detailed engineering of 3D models and/or 2D drawings of physical components, but it is also used throughout the engineering process from conceptual design and layout of products, through strength and dynamic analysis of assemblies to definition of manufacturing methods of components.
CAD has become an especially important technology, within the scope of Computer Aided technologies, with benefits such as lower product development costs and a greatly shortened design cycle. CAD enables designers to lay out and develop work on screen, print it out and save it for future editing, saving time on their drawings.
Fields of use[edit | edit source]
- The Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) Industry
- Architectural engineering
- Interior Design
- Interior Architecture
- Building engineering
- Civil Engineering and Infrastructure
- Roads and Highways
- Railroads and Tunnels
- Water Supply and Hydraulic Engineering
- Storm Drain, Wastewater and Sewer systems
- Mapping and Surveying
- (Chemical) Plant Design
- Factory Layout
- Heating, Ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC)
- Mechanical (MCAD) Engineering
- Electronic design automation (EDA)
- Electrical Engineering
- Manufacturing process planning
- Industrial Design
- Software applications
- Apparel and Textile CAD
- Garden design
- Lighting Design
History[edit | edit source]
Designers have long used computers for their calculations. Initial developments were carried out in the 1960s within the aircraft and automotive industries in the area of 3D surface construction and NC programming, most of it independent of one another and often not publicly published until much later. Some of the mathematical description work on curves was developed in the early 1940s by Isaac Jacob Schoenberg, Apalatequi (Douglas Aircraft) and Roy Liming (North American Aircraft). Robert A. Heinlein in his 1957 novel The Door into Summer suggested the possibility of a robotic Drafting Dan. However, probably the most important work on polynomial curves and sculptured surface was done by Pierre Bezier (Renault), Paul de Casteljau (Citroen), Steven Anson Coons (MIT, Ford), James Ferguson (Boeing), Carl de Boor (GM), Birkhoff (GM) and Garibedian (GM) in the 1960s and W. Gordon (GM) and R. Riesenfeld in the 1970s.
It is argued that a turning point was the development of the SKETCHPAD system at MIT in 1963 by Ivan Sutherland (who later created a graphics technology company with Dr. David Evans). The distinctive feature of SKETCHPAD was that it allowed the designer to interact with his computer graphically: the design can be fed into the computer by drawing on a CRT monitor with a light pen. Effectively, it was a prototype of graphical user interface, an indispensable feature of modern CAD.
First commercial applications of CAD were in large companies in the automotive and aerospace industries, as well as in electronics. Only large corporations could afford the computers capable of performing the calculations. Notable company projects were at GM (Dr. Patrick J.Hanratty) with DAC-1 (Design Augmented by Computer) 1964; Lockheed projects; Bell GRAPHIC 1 and at Renault (Bezier) – UNISURF 1971 car body design and tooling.
One of the most influential events in the development of CAD was the founding of MCS (Manufacturing and Consulting Services Inc.) in 1971 by Dr. P. J. Hanratty, who wrote the system ADAM (Automated Drafting And Machining) but more importantly supplied code to companies such as McDonnell Douglas (Unigraphics), Computervision (CADDS), Calma, Gerber, Autotrol and Control Data.
As computers became more affordable, the application areas have gradually expanded. The development of CAD software for personal desk-top computers was the impetus for almost universal application in all areas of construction.
Other key points in the 1960s and 1970s would be the foundation of CAD systems United Computing, Intergraph, IBM, Intergraph IGDS in 1974 (which led to Bentley MicroStation in 1984)
CAD implementations have evolved dramatically since then. Initially, with 2D in the 1970s, it was typically limited to producing drawings similar to hand-drafted drawings. Advances in programming and computer hardware, notably solid modeling in the 1980s, have allowed more versatile applications of computers in design activities.
Key products for 1981 were the solid modelling packages -Romulus (ShapeData) and Uni-Solid (Unigraphics) based on PADL-2 and the release of the surface modeler CATIA (Dassault Systemes). Autodesk was founded 1982 by John Walker, which led to the 2D system AutoCAD. The next milestone was the release of Pro/ENGINEER in 1988, which heralded greater usage of feature-based modeling methods and parametric linking of the parameters of features. Also of importance to the development of CAD was the development of the B-rep solid modeling kernels (engines for manipulating geometrically and topologically consistent 3D objects) Parasolid (ShapeData) and ACIS (Spatial Technology Inc.) at the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s, both inspired by the work of Ian Braid. This led to the release of mid-range packages such as SolidWorks in 1995, SolidEdge (Intergraph) in 1996, and IronCAD in 1998. Today CAD is one of the main tools used in designing products and architects.
Software providers today[edit | edit source]
Capabilities[edit | edit source]
The capabilities of modern CAD systems include:
- Wireframe geometry creation
- 3D parametric feature based modelling, Solid modelling
- Freeform surface modelling
- Automated design of assemblies, which are collections of parts and/or other assemblies
- create Engineering drawings from the solid models
- Reuse of design components
- Ease of modification of design of model and the production of multiple versions
- Automatic generation of standard components of the design
- Validation/verification of designs against specifications and design rules
- Simulation of designs without building a physical prototype
- Output of engineering documentation, such as manufacturing drawings, and Bills of Materials to reflect the BOM required to build the product
- Import/Export routines to exchange data with other software packages
- Output of design data directly to manufacturing facilities
- Output directly to a Rapid Prototyping or Rapid Manufacture Machine for industrial prototypes
- maintain libraries of parts and assemblies
- calculate mass properties of parts and assemblies
- aid visualization with shading, rotating, hidden line removal, etc.
- Bi-directional parametric association (modification of any feature is reflected in all information relying on that feature; drawings, mass properties, assemblies, etc.)
- kinematics, interference and clearance checking of assemblies
- sheet metal
- hose/cable routing
- electrical component packaging
- inclusion of programming code in a model to control and relate desired attributes of the model
- Programmable design studies and optimization
- Sophisticated visual analysis routines, for draft, curvature, curvature continuity.
Software technologies[edit | edit source]
Originally software for CAD systems were developed with computer language such as Fortran, but with the advancement of object-oriented programming methods this has radically changed. Typical modern parametric feature based modeler and freeform surface systems are built around a number of key C programming language modules with their own APIs. A CAD system can be seen as built up from the interaction of a graphical user interface (GUI) with NURBS geometry and/or boundary representation (B-rep) data via a geometric modeling kernel. A geometry constraint engine may also be employed to manage the associative relationships between geometry, such as wireframe geometry in a sketch or components in an assembly.
Advanced capabilities of these associative relationships have led to a new form of prototyping called digital prototyping. In contrast to physical prototypes, which entail manufacturing time and material costs, digital prototypes allow for design verification and testing on screen, speeding time-to-market and decreasing costs. As technology evolves in this way, CAD has moved beyond a documentation tool (representing designs in graphical format) into a more robust designing tool that assists in the design process.
Hardware and OS technologies[edit | edit source]
Today most CAD computer workstations are Windows based PCs. Some CAD systems also run on one of the the Unix operating systems and a few with Linux. Some CAD systems such as QCad or NX provide multiplatform support including Windows, Linux, UNIX and Mac OSX.
Generally no special hardware is required with the exception of a high end OpenGL based Graphics card. However for complex product design, machines with high speed (and possibly multiple) CPUs and large amounts of RAM are recommended. CAD was an application that benefitted from the installation of a numeric coprocessor especially in early personal computers. The human-machine interface is generally via a computer mouse but can also be via a pen and digitizing graphics tablet. Manipulation of the view of the model on the screen is also sometimes done with the use of a spacemouse/SpaceBall. Some systems also support stereoscopic glasses for viewing the 3D model.
Using CAD[edit | edit source]
CAD is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question. Each of the different types of CAD systems requires the operator to think differently about how he or she will use them and he or she must design their virtual components in a different manner for each.
There are many producers of the lower-end 2D systems, including a number of free and open source programs. These provide an approach to the drawing process without all the fuss over scale and placement on the drawing sheet that accompanied hand drafting, since these can be adjusted as required during the creation of the final draft.
3D wireframe is basically an extension of 2D drafting. Each line has to be manually inserted into the drawing. The final product has no mass properties associated with it and cannot have features directly added to it, such as holes. The operator approaches these in a similar fashion to the 2D systems, although many 3D systems allow using the wireframe model to make the final engineering drawing views.
3D "dumb" solids (programs incorporating this technology include AutoCAD and Cadkey 19) are created in a way analogous to manipulations of real word objects. Basic three-dimensional geometric forms (prisms, cylinders, spheres, and so on) have solid volumes added or subtracted from them, as if assembling or cutting real-world objects. Two-dimensional projected views can easily be generated from the models. Basic 3D solids don't usually include tools to easily allow motion of components, set limits to their motion, or identify interference between components.
3D parametric solid modeling (programs incorporating this technology include Alibre Design, TopSolid, SolidWorks, and Solid Edge) require the operator to use what is referred to as "design intent". The objects and features created are adjustable. Any future modifications will be simple, difficult, or nearly impossible, depending on how the original part was created. One must think of this as being a "perfect world" representation of the component. If a feature was intended to be located from the center of the part, the operator needs to locate it from the center of the model, not, perhaps, from a more convenient edge or an arbitrary point, as he could when using "dumb" solids. Parametric solids require the operator to consider the consequences of his actions carefully. What may be simplest today could be worst case tomorrow.
Some software packages provide the ability to edit parametric and non-parametric geometry without the need to understand or undo the design intent history of the geometry by use of direct modeling functionality. This ability may also include the additional ability to infer the correct relationships between selected geometry (e.g., tangency, concentricity) which makes the editing process less time and labor intensive while still freeing the engineer from the burden of understanding the model’s design intent history.
Draft views are able to be generated easily from the models. Assemblies usually incorporate tools to represent the motions of components, set their limits, and identify interference. The tool kits available for these systems are ever increasing, including 3D piping and injection mold designing packages.
Mid range software was integrating parametric solids more easily to the end user: integrating more intuitive functions (SketchUp), going to the best of both worlds with 3D dumb solids with parametric characteristics (VectorWorks) or making very real-view scenes in relative few steps (Cinema4D).
Top end systems offer the capabilities to incorporate more organic, aesthetics and ergonomic features into designs. Freeform surface modelling is often combined with solids to allow the designer to create products that fit the human form and visual requirements as well as they interface with the machine.
His or her ultimate goal should be to make future work on the current project as simple as possible. This requires a solid understanding of the system being used. A little extra time spent now could mean a great savings later.
The Effects of CAD[edit | edit source]
Starting in the late 1980s, the development of readily affordable CAD programs that could be run on personal computers began a trend of massive downsizing in drafting departments in many small to mid-size companies. As a general rule, one CAD operator could readily replace at least three or five drafters using traditional methods. Additionally, many engineers began to do their own drafting work, further eliminating the need for traditional drafting departments. This trend mirrored that of the elimination of many office jobs traditionally performed by a secretary as word processors, spreadsheets, databases, etc. became standard software packages that "everyone" was expected to learn.
Another consequence had been that since the latest advances were often quite expensive, small and even mid-size firms often could not compete against large firms who could use their computational edge for competitive purposes. Today, however, hardware and software costs have come down. Even high-end packages work on less expensive platforms and some even support multiple platforms. The costs associated with CAD implementation now are more heavily weighted to the costs of training in the use of these high level tools, the cost of integrating a CAD/CAM/CAE PLM using enterprise across multi-CAD and multi-platform environments and the costs of modifying design workflows to exploit the full advantage of CAD tools.
CAD vendors have been effective in providing tools to lower these training costs. These tools have operated in three CAD arenas:
- Improved and simplified user interfaces. This includes the availability of “role” specific tailorable user interfaces through which commands are presented to users in a form appropriate to their function and expertise.
- Enhancements to application software. One such example is improved design-in-context, through the ability to model/edit a design component from within the context of a large, even multi-CAD, active digital mockup.
- User oriented modeling options. This includes the ability to free the user from the need to understand the design intent history of a complex intelligent model.
The adoption of CAD studio or "paper-less studio," as it is sometimes called, in architectural schools was not without resistance, however. Teachers were worried that sketching on a computer screen did not replicate the skills associated with age-old practice of sketching in a sketchbook. Furthermore, many teachers were worried that students would be hired for their computer skills rather than their design skill, as was indeed common in the 1990s. Today, however, (for better or worse, depending on the authority cited) education in CAD is now accepted across the board in schools of architecture. It should be noted, however, that not all architects have wanted to join the CAD revolution.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Computer simulation
- Environmental planning
- Human factors engineering
- Human machine systems design
- Product design
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