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[[Computer anxiety]] is [[anxiety]] generated around the use of [[computers]].
[[Computer anxiety]] is [[anxiety]] generated around the use of [[computers]] , refering to “a state of heightened tension or a feeling of apprehensive expectation”.<ref>Howard, G.S. (1986). Computer anxiety and management use of microcomputers. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Research Press.</ref> Behavioral presentations of computer anxiety include: “(1) avoidance of computers and the general areas where computers are located; (2) excessive caution with computers; (3) negative remarks about computers; and (4) attempts to cut short the necessary use of computers”.<ref>Bozionelos, N. (2001). Computer anxiety: relationship with computer experience and prevalence. Computer in Human Behavior, 17, 213-224.</ref> Computer anxiety is mainly assessed by self-report scales using Likert-type formats.
 
   
Age, gender, and computer experience are thought to be associated with computer anxiety. A meta-analysis based on studies published between 1990 and 1996 found that: (1) female university undergraduates are generally more anxious than male undergraduates, but the strength of this relationship is not conclusive; (2) instruments measuring computer anxiety are generally reliable, but not compatible with one another; and (3) computer anxiety is inversely related to computer experience, but the strength of this relationship remains inconclusive.<ref>Chua, S.L., Chen, D., & Wong, A. F. L. (1999). Computer anxiety and its correlates: a meta-analysis”. Computers in Human Behavior, 15, 609-623.</ref> However, Bozionelos <ref>Bozionelos, N. (2001). Computer anxiety: relationship with computer experience and prevalence. Computer in Human Behavior, 17, 213-224.</ref> found that the youngest sample with the presumably earliest exposure to computerization reported the highest computer anxiety scores and demonstrated the highest prevalence rates. Also, Wilfong <ref>Wilfong, J.D. (2006). Computer anxiety and anger: the impact of computer use, computer experience, and self-efficacy beliefs. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 1001-1011.
 
</ref> found that computer experience did not have the largest significant relationship with computer anxiety.
 
 
==See also==
 
*[[Cyberpathology]]
 
*[[State anxiety]]
 
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
{{reflist}}
 
 
==Further reading==
 
 
*Arigbabu, A. A. (2006). Evidence of Computerphobia in Nigerian Education Majors: Psychological Reports Vol 98(2) Apr 2006, 433-436.
 
*Arigbabu, A. A. (2006). Evidence of Computerphobia in Nigerian Education Majors: Psychological Reports Vol 98(2) Apr 2006, 433-436.
 
*Barbeite, F. G., & Weiss, E. M. (2004). Computer self-efficacy and anxiety scales for an Internet sample: Testing measurement equivalence of existing measures and development of new scales: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 20(1) Jan 2004, 1-15.
 
*Barbeite, F. G., & Weiss, E. M. (2004). Computer self-efficacy and anxiety scales for an Internet sample: Testing measurement equivalence of existing measures and development of new scales: Computers in Human Behavior Vol 20(1) Jan 2004, 1-15.

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