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- This article is about competence evaluation in the US. For a broader view see; Competency to stand trial
Competency evaluation, as used in the United States criminal justice system, is an assessment of the defendant's ability to understand and rationally participate in a court process.
Competency was originally established by the United States Supreme Court as the evaluation of a defendant's competence to proceed to trial. In a subsequent ruling the Court held that that an inmate facing the death penalty must be evaluated as competent to be executed, meaning that he must be capable of understanding why he has received the death penalty and the effect that the penalty will have. In further rulings, competence was also enlarged to include evaluation of the defendant's competence to plead guilty and competence to waive counsel.
The American Bar Association's Criminal Justice Mental Health Standards stated in 1994 that the issue of a defendant's current mental incompetence is the single most important issue in the criminal mental health field, noting that an estimated 24,000 to 60,000 forensic evaluations of a criminal defendant's competency to stand trial were performed every year in the United States. Although estimates vary, a 1973 estimate put the number of competence evaluations at 25,000 to 36,000 each year. There are indications that the number of evaluations of criminal defendants is rising. One comparison of estimates between 1983 and 2004 suggest the annual number rose from 50,000 to 60,000 criminal competency evaluations respectively.
Competence to proceed[edit | edit source]
This standard is based on a 1960 United States Supreme Court case, Dusky v. United States 362 U.S. 402 (1960), affirming a defendant's right to have a competency evaluation before proceeding to trial. Competence to proceed was defined by the court as the defendant's ability to consult rationally with an attorney to aid in his own defense and to have a rational and factual understanding of the charges.
In this case, the defendant Dusky presented a petition of writ of certiorari to the United States Supreme Court requesting that his conviction be reversed on the grounds that he was not competent to stand trial at the time of the proceeding. The court decided to grant the writ, based on a lack of recent evidence that the petitioner was competent at the time of the trial. The case was remanded to the District Court for a new hearing to evaluate Dusky's competence to stand trial, and for a new trial if he was found competent.
The case set the current standard for adjudicative competency in the United States. Although the statutes addressing competency vary from state to state in the United States, the two elements outlined in the Dusky v. United States decision are held in common. The defendant must understand the charges and have the ability to aid his attorney in his own defense.
Competency to stand trial is generally determined via a pretrial evaluation of the defendant's overall mental status and mental state at the time of the examination. This evaluation aims to provide sufficient information to allow a judge to rule on the competency of the defendant should a motion to that effect be made by either the prosecutor or defense attorney. A judge may also directly rule a defendant incompetent to stand trial without receiving a motion to that effect from counsel.
Who is deemed qualified to conduct a competency evaluation varies form state to state. Originally competency evaluations included a range of tests and assessments. Recently the tendency is to simplify the process by relying upon an interview and, optionally, a psychological test. There are a number of standardized screening devices that also may be employed.
Competence to be executed[edit | edit source]
An additional evaluation is of the competence to be executed, that is the defendant must be capable of understanding why he is being executed and the effect execution will have.
The right to be competent to be executed resulted from the outcome of a United States Supreme Court case, Ford v. Wainwright, in which a Florida inmate on death row took his case to the United States Supreme Court, declaring he was not competent to be executed. He had been evaluated as incompetent but the Governor of Florida made an executive branch decision and signed the death warrant anyway. The court ruled that a forensic professional must make that evaluation and, if the inmate is found incompetent, provide treatment to aid in the inmate gaining competency in order that the execution can take place.
Providing treatment to an individual to enable that person to become competent to be executed places mental health professionals in an ethical dilemma. The National Medical Association takes the position that ethically it is a physician's duty to provide treatment, regardless of the patient's legal situation. Others feel that it unethical to treat a person in order to execute them. Most restorations of competency are accomplished through psychiatric medication.
Competence to plead guilty[edit | edit source]
In Godinez v. Moran, 1993, the Supreme Court held that the competency standard for pleading guilty or waiving the right to counsel is the same as the competency standard for proceeding to trial as established in Dusky v. United States. A higher standard of competency is not required.
Feigning incompetence[edit | edit source]
Right to waive competency to stand trial[edit | edit source]
In United States v. Morin, 338 F.3d 838 (8th Cir. 2003), the United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit, the court upheld the defendant's conviction. The court of appeals rejected Mr. Morin’s argument, among others, that the district court violated his due process rights by refusing to allow him to waive competency at trial. The court held that since his competency to stand trial was never challenged, the issue of whether he was entitled to waive competency to stand trial was properly not considered.
Common principles[edit | edit source]
Although Dusky v. United States affirmed the right to a competency evaluation, the specifics of the evaluation remain ambiguous. Each evaluator must decide what is meant by "sufficient present ability" and "has a rational as well as a factual understanding" as set forth in the Dusky decision. One common principle is clear in forensic evaluations, however. Forensic evaluators cannot reach a finding independent of the facts of the case at hand.
Court rullings[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
Footnotes[edit | edit source]
- Competency to stand trial. URL accessed on 2007-10-05.
- Ford v. Wainwright 477 U.S. 399. Cornell Law School. URL accessed on 2007-10-03.
- Godinez, Warden v. Moran. Cornell Law School. URL accessed on 2007-10-05.
- (2001). The MacArthur Adjudicative Competence Study. MacArthur Research Network for Mental Health and the Law. URL accessed on 2008-02-16.
- Douglas Mossman, MD, Stephen G. Noffsinger, MD, Peter Ash, MD, et al (2007). AAPL Practice Guideline for the Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation of Competence to Stand Trial. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. URL accessed on 2008-02-17.
- Dusky v. United States. caselaw.findlaw.com. URL accessed on 2007-10-05.
- Grisso, Thomas (1988). Competency to Stand Trial Evaluations: A Manual for Practice, 1988, 1–23, Sarasota FL: Professional Resource Exchange. ISBN 0-943158-51-6.
- Conducting a Competency Assessment. URL accessed on 2007-10-05.
- Executing the Mentally Ill: The Criminal Justice System and the Case of Alvin Ford. Sage. URL accessed on 2007-10-03.
- Ford v. Wainwright 477 U.S. 399. Cornell Law School. URL accessed on 2007-10-03.
- (1986). Executing the Mentally Ill. Sage. URL accessed on 2007-10-03.
- The debate on treating individuals incompetent for execution. The American Journal of Psychiatry. URL accessed on 2007-10-09.
- Gary, Melton (1997). Psychological Evaluations for the Courts: A Handbook for Mental Health Professionals and Lawyers, 2nd, p. 184, New York: The Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-236-4.
- The MacArthur Adjudicative Competence Study. The MacArthur Research Network on Mental Health and the Law. URL accessed on 2007-11-25.
- Behavior of the Defendant in a Competency-to-Stand-Trial Evaluation Becomes an Issue in Sentencing. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. URL accessed on 2007-10-10.
- (2005). Right to Waive Competency to Stand Trial. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. URL accessed on 2007-10-11.
- (2002). Mental Competency Evaluations: Guidelines for Judges and Attorneys. American Judges Association. URL accessed on 2007-10-10.