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Coeducation is the integrated education of males and females at the same school facilities. The opposite situation is described as single-sex education. Most older institutions of higher education restricted their enrollment to a single sex at some point in their history, and since then have changed their policies to become coeducational.
Co-ed is a shortened adjectival form of co-educational, and the word co-ed is sometimes also used, in the United States, as a noun to refer to a female college student. The word is also often used to describe a situation in which both genders are integrated in any form (e.g. "The team is co-ed").
- 1 Mixed schools in the United Kingdom
- 2 Coeducation in the United States
- 3 Coeducation in Canada
- 4 Coeducation in mainland China
- 5 Co-education in Hong Kong
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
Mixed schools in the United Kingdom[edit | edit source]
- Further information: Education in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, the usual term is mixed, and today most schools are mixed. In England the first public mixed boarding school was Bedales School founded in 1893 by John Haden Badley and coeducational since 1898. The Scottish Dollar Academy claims to be the first mixed boarding school in the UK (in 1818). Many previously single-sex schools have begun to accept both sexes in the past few decades; for example, Clifton College began to accept girls in 1987.
Coeducation in the United States[edit | edit source]
The first coeducational institution of higher education in the United States was Franklin College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, established in 1787. Its first enrollment class in 1787 consisted of 78 male and 36 female students. Among the latter was Rebecca Gratz, the first Jewish female college student in the United States. However, the college began having financial problems and it was reopened as an all-male institution. It became co-ed again in 1969 under its current name, Franklin and Marshall College.
The longest continuously operating coeducational school in the United States is Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio, which was established in 1833. The first four women to receive bachelor's degrees in the United States earned them at Oberlin in 1841. Later, in 1862, the first African-American woman to receive a bachelor's degree (Mary Jane Patterson) also earned it from Oberlin College.
The University of Iowa became the first public or state university in the United States to admit women, and for much of the next century, public universities, and land grant universities in particular, would lead the way in higher education coeducation. Many other early coeducational universities, especially west of the Mississippi River, were private, such as Carleton College (1866), Texas Christian University (1873), and Stanford University (1891).
At the same time, according to Irene Harwarth, Mindi Maline, and Elizabeth DeBra, "women's colleges were founded during the mid- and late-19th century in response to a need for advanced education for women at a time when they were not admitted to most institutions of higher education" . A notable example is the prestigious Seven Sisters. Of the seven, Vassar College is now co-educational and Radcliffe College has merged with Harvard University. Wellesley College, Smith College, Mount Holyoke College, Bryn Mawr College, and Barnard College are still women's colleges.
Other notable women's colleges that have become coeducational include Ohio Wesleyan Female College in Ohio, Skidmore College, Wells College, and Sarah Lawrence College in New York state, Goucher College in Maryland and Connecticut College.
U.S. institutions of higher education coeducational from establishment[edit | edit source]
- Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania (1787) (began as a coeducational school but the co-ed policy was soon changed and it would take 182 years before women were again permitted to enroll in the school)
- Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio (1833) (usually credited as the first consistently coeducational school in the United States)
- Alfred University, Village of Alfred in western New York State (1836)
- Guilford College, Greensboro, North Carolina (1837)
- Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois (1837)
- Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Michigan, (1844)
- Olivet College, Olivet, Michigan (1844)
- Lawrence University, Appleton, Wisconsin (1847)
- Waynesburg College, Waynesburg, Pennsylvania (1849) (first woman to receive a Bachelor's Degree in Pennsylvania in 1857)
- Urbana University, Urbana, Ohio (1850)
- Westminster College, Duke College New Wilmington, Pennsylvania (1852)
- Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio (1853)
- Hamline University, Red Wing, Minnesota (1854)
- Bates College (1855), Lewiston, Maine (first woman to receive a bachelor's degree in New England in 1869)
- University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (1856)
- Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas (1863)
- Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (1865) (first woman enrolled in 1870, first woman graduated in 1873)
- Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota (1866)
- University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California (1868)
- Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts (1869)
- Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania (1870)
- Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York (1870)
- Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas (1873)
- Hendrix College, Conway, Arkansas (1876)
- Emerson College, Boston, Massachusetts (1880)
- Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa (1881)
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (1884)
- Pomona College, Claremont, California (1887)
- The College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho (1891)
- Stanford University, Stanford, California (1891)
- University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (1892)
- Reed College, Portland, Oregon (1908)
- Rice University, Houston, Texas (1912)
- Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York (1946)
- Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts (1948)
- Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, California (1955) (first woman graduated in 1960)
- Hampshire College, Amherst, Massachusetts (1965)
- University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California (1965)
- Virtually all of the thousands of institutions of higher education that were founded after Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 are coeducational, and so are not listed.
Years U.S. educational institutions became coeducational[edit | edit source]
- Schools that were previously all-female are listed in italics.
Coeducation in Canada[edit | edit source]
Years Canadian educational institutions became coeducational[edit | edit source]
|1980||Royal Military College of Canada|
Coeducation in mainland China[edit | edit source]
The first coeducational institution of higher learning in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal School which was renamed National Central University in 1928 and Nanjing University 1949. For thousands of years in China, education, especially higher education, was the privilege of men. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University and Peking Girl's Higher Normal School, but coeducation was still prohibited.
Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of coeducation, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students (規定女子旁聽法案) on the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal Institute held on December 7th, 1919. He also proposed for the university to recruit female students. The idea was supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming, and such famous professors as Lu Zhiwei and Yang Xingfo, but opposed by many famous men of the time. The meeting passed the law and decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal Institute enrolled eight coeducational Chinese women students in 1920. In the same year Peking University also began to allow women students to audit classes. One of the most notable female students of that time was Jianxiong Wu.
In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded. The government of PRC has provided equal opportunities for education since then, and all schools and universities have become coeducational. In recent years, however, many female and/or single-sex schools have again emerged for special vocational training needs but equal rights for education still apply to all citizens.
Co-education in Hong Kong[edit | edit source]
St. Paul's Co-educational College was the first co-educational secondary school in Hong Kong. It was founded in 1915 as St. Paul's Girls' College. At the end of World War II it was temporarily merged with St. Paul's College, which is a boys' school. When classes at the campus of St. Paul's College were resumed, it continued to be co-educational, and changed to its present name.
See also[edit | edit source]
- List of current and historical women's universities and colleges
- Men's college
- Single-sex education
- Single-sex environments
- Singlesex schools
- Women's college
[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Template:UK SI, Schedule 6, regulation 11, clause 5(b).
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