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A closed system or Isolated system, is a system in the "state of being isolated from its surrounding environment." The term often refers to an idealized system in which closure is perfect. In reality no system can be completely closed; there are only varying degrees of closure.
Truly isolated physical systems do not exist in reality, but real systems may behave nearly this way for finite (possibly very long) times. The concept of an isolated system can serve as a useful model approximating many real-world situations. It is an acceptable idealization used in constructing mathematical models of certain natural phenomena.
- Dynamical system: Has components and/or flows that change over time.
- Glossary of systems theory
- Open system: Can be influenced by events outside of the actual or conceptual boundaries.
- Bela H. Banathy (1992). A systems view of education: concepts and principles for effective practice. p.184
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