Edit Page
Source Editor

Warning: You are not logged in. Your IP address will be publicly visible if you make any edits. If you log in or create an account, your edits will be attributed to your username, along with other benefits.

The edit can be undone. Please check the comparison below to verify that this is what you want to do, and then save the changes below to finish undoing the edit.

This page supports semantic in-text annotations (e.g. "[[Is specified as::World Heritage Site]]") to build structured and queryable content provided by Semantic MediaWiki. For a comprehensive description on how to use annotations or the #ask parser function, please have a look at the getting started, in-text annotation, or inline queries help pages.

Latest revision Your text
Line 18: Line 18:
 
==Business==
 
==Business==
   
The day care [[industry]] is a continuum from personal parental care to large, regulated institutions. The vast majority of childcare is still performed by the parents, in house nanny or through informal arrangements with relatives, neighbors or friends. For example, in Canada, among two parent families with at least one working parent, 62% of parents handle the childcare themselves, 32% have other in-home care (nannies, relatives, neighbours or friends) and only 6.5% use a formal day care center<ref>http://web.archive.org/web/20040601092547/http://www.fraserinstitute.ca/admin/books/chapterfiles/Private%20Sector%20Can%20Meet%20Child%20Care%20Demands-Mar04fftaylor.pdf</ref>.
+
The day care [[industry]] is a continuum from personal parental care to large, regulated institutions. The vast majority of childcare is still performed by the parents, in house nanny or through informal arrangements with relatives, neighbors or friends. For example, in Canada, among two parent families with at least one working parent, 62% of parents handle the childcare themselves, 32% have other in-home care (nannies, relatives, neighbours or friends) and only 6.5% use a formal day care center<ref>http://www.fraserinstitute.ca/admin/books/chapterfiles/Private%20Sector%20Can%20Meet%20Child%20Care%20Demands-Mar04fftaylor.pdf</ref>.
   
 
Where the market is sufficiently large or there are government subsidies for daycare, for-profit corporate day care exists. In North America, [[Bright Horizons Family Solutions]] is one of the largest such companies<ref>http://www.fool.com/news/commentary/2003/commentary030918sm.htm</ref>. It is a publicly traded company operating over 600 daycare centers<ref>http://www.brighthorizons.com/site/pages/investors.aspx</ref>. The Australian government's childcare subsidy has allowed the creation of a large private-sector industry in that country<ref>http://www.facs.gov.au/internet/facsinternet.nsf/VIA/childcare/$File/childcare.pdf</ref>. [[ABC Learning Centres]] is a publicly traded company running about 1000 daycare centres in Australia and New Zealand and another 500 in the USA<ref>See ABC Learning Centres [http://childcare.com.au/index.cfm?path=investorrelations/investorrelations Annual Report]</ref>. Another factor favoring large corporate day cares is the existence of childcare facilities in the workplace. Large corporations will not handle this employee benefit directly themselves and will seek out large corporate providers to manage their corporate daycares. Most smaller, for-profit day cares operate out of a single location.
 
Where the market is sufficiently large or there are government subsidies for daycare, for-profit corporate day care exists. In North America, [[Bright Horizons Family Solutions]] is one of the largest such companies<ref>http://www.fool.com/news/commentary/2003/commentary030918sm.htm</ref>. It is a publicly traded company operating over 600 daycare centers<ref>http://www.brighthorizons.com/site/pages/investors.aspx</ref>. The Australian government's childcare subsidy has allowed the creation of a large private-sector industry in that country<ref>http://www.facs.gov.au/internet/facsinternet.nsf/VIA/childcare/$File/childcare.pdf</ref>. [[ABC Learning Centres]] is a publicly traded company running about 1000 daycare centres in Australia and New Zealand and another 500 in the USA<ref>See ABC Learning Centres [http://childcare.com.au/index.cfm?path=investorrelations/investorrelations Annual Report]</ref>. Another factor favoring large corporate day cares is the existence of childcare facilities in the workplace. Large corporations will not handle this employee benefit directly themselves and will seek out large corporate providers to manage their corporate daycares. Most smaller, for-profit day cares operate out of a single location.
Line 30: Line 30:
 
[[Franchising]] of home day cares attempts to bring economies of scale to home day cares. A central operator handles marketing, administration and perhaps some central purchasing while the actual care occurs in individual homes. The central operator may provide training to the individual care providers.
 
[[Franchising]] of home day cares attempts to bring economies of scale to home day cares. A central operator handles marketing, administration and perhaps some central purchasing while the actual care occurs in individual homes. The central operator may provide training to the individual care providers.
   
For all providers, the largest expense is labour. In a 1999 Canadian survey of formal child care centres, labour accounts for 63% of costs and the industry had an average profit of 5.3%<ref>http://web.archive.org/web/20040315164736/http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/63F0002XIE/63F0002XIB2002040.pdf</ref>. Given the labour intensive nature of the industry, it is not surprising that the same survey showed little economies of scale between larger and smaller operators.
+
For all providers, the largest expense is labour. In a 1999 Canadian survey of formal child care centres, labour accounts for 63% of costs and the industry had an average profit of 5.3%<ref>http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/63F0002XIE/63F0002XIB2002040.pdf</ref>. Given the labour intensive nature of the industry, it is not surprising that the same survey showed little economies of scale between larger and smaller operators.
   
 
Local legislation may regulate the operation of day care centres. The legislation will define what constitutes a day care (so as to not regulate individual baby sitters). It may specify the physical facilities (washroom, eating, sleeping, lighting levels, etc). The minimum window space may be such that it precludes day cares from being in a basement. It may specify the minimum floor space per child (for example 2.8 square metres) and the maximum number of children per room (for example 24). It may mandate minimum outdoor time (for example 2 hours for programs 6 hours or longer). It may mandate staffing ratios (for example 1:3 for under 18 months, 1:5 for 18-30 months, 1:8 for over 30 months, and even higher ratios for older children). Legislation may mandate qualifications of supervisors. Staff typically do not require any qualifications but staff under the age of eighteen may require supervision. Typically, once the child reaches the age of twelve, they are no longer covered by day care legislation and programs for older children may not be regulated.
 
Local legislation may regulate the operation of day care centres. The legislation will define what constitutes a day care (so as to not regulate individual baby sitters). It may specify the physical facilities (washroom, eating, sleeping, lighting levels, etc). The minimum window space may be such that it precludes day cares from being in a basement. It may specify the minimum floor space per child (for example 2.8 square metres) and the maximum number of children per room (for example 24). It may mandate minimum outdoor time (for example 2 hours for programs 6 hours or longer). It may mandate staffing ratios (for example 1:3 for under 18 months, 1:5 for 18-30 months, 1:8 for over 30 months, and even higher ratios for older children). Legislation may mandate qualifications of supervisors. Staff typically do not require any qualifications but staff under the age of eighteen may require supervision. Typically, once the child reaches the age of twelve, they are no longer covered by day care legislation and programs for older children may not be regulated.
   
In Canada, the workforce is predominantly female (95%) and low paid, averaging only 60% of average workforce wage<ref>http://web.archive.org/web/20040315164736/http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/63F0002XIE/63F0002XIB2002040.pdf</ref>. Many employees are at local [[minimum wage]] and are typically paid by the hour rather than [[salary|salaried]]. In the United States, "child care worker" is the fifth most female-dominated occupation (95.5% female in 1999).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-15.pdf |title= Evidence From Census 2000 About Earnings by Detailed Occupation for Men and Women. Census 2000 Special Reports, May 2004. |accessdate=2006-09-02}}</ref>
+
In Canada, the workforce is predominantly female (95%) and low paid, averaging only 60% of average workforce wage<ref>http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/63F0002XIE/63F0002XIB2002040.pdf</ref>. Many employees are at local [[minimum wage]] and are typically paid by the hour rather than [[salary|salaried]]. In the United States, "child care worker" is the fifth most female-dominated occupation (95.5% female in 1999).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-15.pdf |title= Evidence From Census 2000 About Earnings by Detailed Occupation for Men and Women. Census 2000 Special Reports, May 2004. |accessdate=2006-09-02}}</ref>
   
 
In non-profits, the title of the most senior supervisor is typically "executive director", following the convention of most non-profit organizations.
 
In non-profits, the title of the most senior supervisor is typically "executive director", following the convention of most non-profit organizations.
Line 56: Line 56:
 
==Child development==
 
==Child development==
 
{{Main|Child development}}
 
{{Main|Child development}}
Independent studies suggest that good day care for non-infants is not harmful <ref>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10989621&dopt=Abstract</ref>. Some advocate that day care is inherently inferior to parental care<ref>http://www.daycaresdontcare.org</ref>. In some cases, good daycare can provide different experiences than parental care does, especially when children reach two and are ready to interact with other children. <ref>http://web.archive.org/web/20050520153949/http://www.excellence-earlychildhood.ca/documents/Ahnert-LambANGxp.pdf</ref> Bad day care puts the child at physical, emotional and attachment risk.
+
Independent studies suggest that good day care for non-infants is not harmful <ref>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10989621&dopt=Abstract</ref>. Some advocate that day care is inherently inferior to parental care<ref>http://www.daycaresdontcare.org</ref>. In some cases, good daycare can provide different experiences than parental care does, especially when children reach two and are ready to interact with other children. <ref>http://www.excellence-earlychildhood.ca/documents/Ahnert-LambANGxp.pdf</ref> Bad day care puts the child at physical, emotional and attachment risk.
   
 
The National Institute of Health released a study in March, 2007 after following a group of children through early childhood to the 6th grade. The study found that the children who received a higher quality of child care scored higher on 5th grade vocabulary tests then the children who had attended child care of a lower quality. The study also reported that teachers found children from child care to be "disobedient", fight more frequently, and more argumentative. The study reported the increases in aggression and vocabulary were small.{{Fact|date=June 2007}}
 
The National Institute of Health released a study in March, 2007 after following a group of children through early childhood to the 6th grade. The study found that the children who received a higher quality of child care scored higher on 5th grade vocabulary tests then the children who had attended child care of a lower quality. The study also reported that teachers found children from child care to be "disobedient", fight more frequently, and more argumentative. The study reported the increases in aggression and vocabulary were small.{{Fact|date=June 2007}}
Line 85: Line 85:
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
*[http://web.archive.org/web/20040315164736/http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/63F0002XIE/63F0002XIB2002040.pdf A profile of the childcare services industry (in Canada)]
+
*[http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/63F0002XIE/63F0002XIB2002040.pdf A profile of the childcare services industry (in Canada)]
 
*{{dmoz|/Home/Family/Childcare/|Childcare}}
 
*{{dmoz|/Home/Family/Childcare/|Childcare}}
 
*[http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-69-1710/life_society/day_care/ CBC Digital Archives - Who Cares For Our Kids?: The Changing Face of Day Care in Canada]
 
*[http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-69-1710/life_society/day_care/ CBC Digital Archives - Who Cares For Our Kids?: The Changing Face of Day Care in Canada]

Please note that all contributions to the Psychology Wiki are considered to be released under the CC-BY-SA

Cancel Editing help (opens in new window)

This page is a member of 1 hidden category: