Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
|Café au lait spot|
|Classification and external resources|
A café au lait spot on a patient's left cheek.
Café au lait spots or Café au lait macules are pigmented birthmarks. The name café au lait is French for "coffee with milk" and refers to their light-brown color. They are also called "giraffe spots" or "coast of Maine spots."
Etiology[edit | edit source]
- Having six or more café au lait spots greater than 5 mm in diameter before puberty, or greater than 15 mm in diameter after puberty, is a diagnostic feature of neurofibromatosis type I, but other features are required to diagnose NF-1.
- Familial multiple café au lait spots have been observed without NF-1 diagnosis.
- They can be caused by vitiligo in the rare McCune–Albright syndrome.
- Legius syndrome
- Tuberous sclerosis
- Fanconi anemia, a rare genetic disease.
- Ataxia telangiectasia
- Basal cell nevus syndrome
- Benign congenital skin lesion
- Bloom syndrome
- Chediak Higashi syndrome
- Congenital naevus
- Gaucher disease
- Hunter syndrome
- Maffucci syndrome
- Multiple mucosal neuroma syndrome
- Noonan syndrome
- Silver–Russell syndrome
- Watson syndrome
- Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome
Diagnosis[edit | edit source]
Diagnosis is visual with measurement of spot size and count of number of spots having clinical significance for diagnosis of associated disorders such as Neurofibromatosis type I. Usually, more than 6 spots more than 3 cm in diameter indicates NF1.
Prognosis[edit | edit source]
Café au lait spots are benign and do not cause any ailment themselves.
Treatment[edit | edit source]
They can be treated with lasers.
See also[edit | edit source]
- List of cutaneous conditions
- List of conditions associated with café au lait macules
References[edit | edit source]
- Plensdorf S, Martinez J (January 2009). Common pigmentation disorders. American Family Physician 79 (2): 109–16.
- coast of Maine spots - General Practice Notebook
- "Cafe Au Lait Spots", by William D James, MD
- Cafe Au Lait Spots
- Arnsmeier, Sheryl L. (1994). Familial Multiple Cafe au lait Spots. Arch Dermatol. 130 (11): 1425–1426.
- Whyte, M. P. (2000). Café-au-lait spots caused by vitiligo in McCune-Albright syndrome. J Bone Miner Res. 15 (12): 2521–2523.
- Scheinfeld, Noah S. (2011). Laser Treatment of Benign Pigmented Lesions.
[edit | edit source]
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|