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Birth trauma
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 P10P15

Birth trauma is any damage to the neonate's body structure or function due to events during birth. It includes birth asphyxia.

Birth trauma can refer to:

(P10-P15) Birth trauma[edit | edit source]



Signs and symptoms[edit | edit source]

Sequelae can occur in both the mother and the infant after a traumatic birth.

Infant[edit | edit source]

Well any number of injuries may occur during the birthing process. A number of specific conditions are well described. Brachial plexus palsy occurs in 0.4 to 5.1 infants per 1000 live birth.[1] Head trauma during delivery can lead to a number of conditions include: caput succedaneum, cephalohematoma, subgaleal hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, and intraventricular hemorrhage.

The most common fracture during delivery is that of the clavicle (0.5%).[2]

Mother[edit | edit source]

Rates of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as high as 5.9% have been reported.[3]

Causes[edit | edit source]

Risk factors include vacuum extraction and the use of forceps.[4]

Psychological sequelea[edit | edit source]

Effects on the child[edit | edit source]

Effects on the mother[edit | edit source]

A very painful labour, particularly if it produces longer term incapacity, for example reqiring intensive care, can disrupt the formation of the maternal bond


Physical effects[edit | edit source]

The physical effects of these complication and consequent birth trauma can lead to deformation of the head and effect the brain to produce mental retardation and/or neurological disorders


See also[edit | edit source]

Template:Medical conditions

Epidemiology[edit | edit source]

File:Birth asphyxia and birth trauma world map - DALY - WHO2002.svg

Disability-adjusted life year for birth asphyxia and birth trauma per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.[5]

██ no data ██ less than 150 ██ 150-300 ██ 300-450 ██ 450-600 ██ 600-750 ██ 750-900 ██ 900-1050 ██ 1050-1200 ██ 1200-1350 ██ 1350-1500 ██ 1500-1750 ██ more than 1750

Birth trauma is uncommon in the Western world in relation to rates in the third world. In the West injury occurs in 1.1% of C-sections.[6]



See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]


Template:Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period

[[Category:Childbirth]

  1. Andersen J, Watt J, Olson J, Van Aerde J (February 2006). Perinatal brachial plexus palsy. Paediatr Child Health 11 (2): 93–100.
  2. Beall MH, Ross MG (December 2001). Clavicle fracture in labor: risk factors and associated morbidities. J Perinatol 21 (8): 513–5.
  3. Beck CT (2009). Birth trauma and its sequelae. J Trauma Dissociation 10 (2): 189–203.
  4. Demissie K, Rhoads GG, Smulian JC, et al. (July 2004). Operative vaginal delivery and neonatal and infant adverse outcomes: population based retrospective analysis. BMJ 329 (7456): 24–9.
  5. (2002). Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO Member States in 2002. (xls) World Health Organization.
  6. Alexander JM, Leveno KJ, Hauth J, et al. (October 2006). Fetal injury associated with cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 108 (4): 885–90.
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